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- Journal of the American Chemical Society
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In exploring the conformational behavior of cyclic tungsten bis-alkyne complexes, two dialkynylamides (14a and 14c) and two dialkynylesters (14b and 14d) derived from 1,1’-ferrocenedicarboxylic acid were prepared. They were subsequently reacted with W(CO)3(dmtc)2 to yield the desired cyclic tungsten bis-alkyne complexes 8-11. In the cyclization of 14a to yield 8 a dimeric macrocyclic complex, 15, featuring two tungsten bis-alkyne complexes in the ring, also was isolated. The conformational behavior of these complexes was assessed by analysis of the 1H NMR resonances for the alkyne hydrogens, which appear around 11 ppm. The spectra for complexes 10, 11 and 15 show multiple singlets of varying integrations for these protons, while the spectra for complexes 8 and 9 show only two resonances of equal integration for the alkyne hydrogens. The spectra for 8 and 9 changed very little when examined at higher temperatures, indicating that the solution conformation is robust. A ROESY spectrum was obtained for 8. It did not show any crosspeaks between the two alkyne hydrogens. The NMR data shows that the alkyne ligands in 10, 11 and 15 are able to rotate about the tungsten-alkyne bond; these complexes adopted several different solution conformations relating to syn and anti arrangements ofmore »
A route under development for the synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll a and analogues relies on joining an AD-dihydrodipyrrin (bearing a D-ring carboxaldehyde) and a BC-dihydrodipyrrin (bearing a C-ring β-ketoester group and a B-ring dimethoxymethyl group) via Knoevenagel condensation followed by double-ring closure (Nazarov cyclization, electrophilic aromatic substitution, and elimination of methanol). Prior synthetic studies afforded the bacteriochlorophyll skeleton containing a gem-dimethyl group in ring B, a trans -dialkyl group in ring D, and a carboethoxy group at the 3-position of ring A. To explore the incorporation of native substituents, the synthesis of two bacteriochlorophyll analogues thereof was pursued, one with 12-methyl and 3-carboethoxy groups and the other with 2,12-dimethyl and 3-acetyl groups. The 12-methyl group resulted in half the yield ( versus the unsubstituted analogue) in the Knoevenagel reaction, but insignificant effects in all other steps including the rate and yield of double-ring closure despite the known effects of alkyl groups to facilitate electrophilic substitution of pyrroles. The 2-methyl-3-acetyl group, however, resulted in diminished yields in several steps, including the Knoevenagel reaction, but not the double-ring closure. The results point to obstacles and openings on the path to total syntheses of the native pigments.
Study of conditions for streamlined assembly of a model bacteriochlorophyll from two dihydrodipyrrin halvesA long-term goal is to gain synthetic access to native photosynthetic bacteriochlorophylls. A recently developed route entails Knoevenagel condensation of an AD dihydrodipyrrin ( I , bearing a carboxaldehyde attached to pyrroline ring D) and a BC dihydrodipyrrin ( II , bearing a β-ketoester attached to pyrrole ring C) to form the Z / E -enone. Acid-mediated double-ring closure of the E -enone III-E (Nazarov cyclization, electrophilic aromatic substitution, and elimination of methanol) affords the bacteriochlorophyll skeleton BC-1 containing the isocyclic ring (ring E), a trans -dialkyl group in ring D, and a gem-dimethyl group in ring B. Prior work established the synthesis and the integrity of the resulting trans -dialkyl groups and bacteriochlorin chromophore. The counterpart report here concerns an in-depth study of conditions for the double-ring closure: catalyst/solvent surveys; grid search including time courses of [ III-E ] versus [acid] concentrations emphasizing equimolar, inverse molar, and variable acid lines of inquiry; and chlorin byproduct quantitation. Key findings are that (1) the double-ring closure can be carried out in 4 h ( t 1/2 ∼ 40 min) instead of 20 h, affording ∼1/5th the chlorin byproduct (0.16%) while maintaining the yield of BC-1 (up to 77%); (2) the separatemore »
Deoxypodophyllotoxin contains a core of four fused rings (A to D) with three consecutive chiral centers, the last being created by the attachment of a peripheral trimethoxyphenyl ring (E) to ring C. Previous studies have suggested that the iron(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate–dependent (Fe/2OG) oxygenase, deoxypodophyllotoxin synthase (DPS), catalyzes the oxidative coupling of ring B and ring E to form ring C and complete the tetracyclic core. Despite recent efforts to deploy DPS in the preparation of deoxypodophyllotoxin analogs, the mechanism underlying the regio- and stereoselectivity of this cyclization event has not been elucidated. Herein, we report 1) two structures of DPS in complex with 2OG and (±)-yatein, 2) in vitro analysis of enzymatic reactivity with substrate analogs, and 3) model reactions addressing DPS’s catalytic mechanism. The results disfavor a prior proposal of on-pathway benzylic hydroxylation. Rather, the DPS-catalyzed cyclization likely proceeds by hydrogen atom abstraction from C7', oxidation of the benzylic radical to a carbocation, Friedel–Crafts-like ring closure, and rearomatization of ring B by C6 deprotonation. This mechanism adds to the known pathways for transformation of the carbon-centered radical in Fe/2OG enzymes and suggests what types of substrate modification are likely tolerable in DPS-catalyzed production of deoxypodophyllotoxin analogs.
Designing electrolytes with polymerlike glass-forming properties and fast ion transport at low temperatures
In the presence of Lewis acid salts, the cyclic ether, dioxolane (DOL), is known to undergo ring-opening polymerization inside electrochemical cells to form solid-state polymer batteries with good interfacial charge-transport properties. Here we report that LiNO3, which is unable to ring-open DOL, possesses a previously unknown ability to coordinate with and strain DOL molecules in bulk liquids, completely arresting their crystallization. The strained DOL electrolytes exhibit physical properties analogous to amorphous polymers, including a prominent glass transition, elevated moduli, and low activation entropy for ion transport, but manifest unusually high, liquidlike ionic conductivities (e.g., 1 mS/cm) at temperatures as low as −50 °C. Systematic electrochemical studies reveal that the electrolytes also promote reversible cycling of Li metal anodes with high Coulombic efficiency (CE) on both conventional planar substrates (1 mAh/cm2over 1,000 cycles with 99.1% CE; 3 mAh/cm2over 300 cycles with 99.2% CE) and unconventional, nonplanar/three-dimensional (3D) substrates (10 mAh/cm2over 100 cycles with 99.3% CE). Our finding that LiNO3promotes reversibility of Li metal electrodes in liquid DOL electrolytes by a physical mechanism provides a possible solution to a long-standing puzzle in the field about the versatility of LiNO3salt additives for enhancing reversibility of Li metal electrodes in essentially any aprotic liquidmore »