Sorting is a fundamental function in many applications from data processing to database systems. For high performance, sorting-hardware based sorting designs are implemented by conventional binary or emerging stochastic computing (SC) approaches. Binary designs are fast and energy-efficient but costly to implement. SC-based designs, on the other hand, are area and power-efficient but slow and energy-hungry. So, the previous studies of the hardware-based sorting further faced scalability issues. In this work, we propose a novel scalable low-cost design for implementing sorting networks. We borrow the concept of SC for the area- and power efficiency but use weighted stochastic bit-streams to address the high latency and energy consumption issue of SC designs. A new lock and swap (LAS) unit is proposed to sort weighted bit-streams. The LAS-based sorting network can determine the result of comparing different input values early and then map the inputs to the corresponding outputs based on shorter weighted bit-streams. Experimental results show that the proposed design approach achieves much better hardware scalability than prior work. Especially, as increasing the number of inputs, the proposed scheme can reduce the energy consumption by about 3.8% - 93% compared to prior binary and SC-based designs.
This content will become publicly available on September 30, 2023
Energy-Efficient LSTM Inference Accelerator for Real-Time Causal Prediction
Ever-growing edge applications often require short processing latency and high energy efficiency to meet strict timing and power budget. In this work, we propose that the compact long short-term memory (LSTM) model can approximate conventional acausal algorithms with reduced latency and improved efficiency for real-time causal prediction, especially for the neural signal processing in closed-loop feedback applications. We design an LSTM inference accelerator by taking advantage of the fine-grained parallelism and pipelined feedforward and recurrent updates. We also propose a bit-sparse quantization method that can reduce the circuit area and power consumption by replacing the multipliers with the bit-shift operators. We explore different combinations of pruning and quantization methods for energy-efficient LSTM inference on datasets collected from the electroencephalogram (EEG) and calcium image processing applications. Evaluation results show that our proposed LSTM inference accelerator can achieve 1.19 GOPS/mW energy efficiency. The LSTM accelerator with 2-sbit/16-bit sparse quantization and 60% sparsity can reduce the circuit area and power consumption by 54.1% and 56.3%, respectively, compared with a 16-bit baseline implementation.
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 1 to 19
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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