skip to main content

Title: 31 P nuclear spin singlet lifetimes in a system with switchable magnetic inequivalence: experiment and simulation
31 P NMR spectroscopy and the study of nuclear spin singlet relaxation phenomena are of interest in particular due to the importance of phosphorus-containing compounds in physiology. We report the generation and measurement of relaxation of 31 P singlet order in a chemically equivalent but magnetically inequivalent case. Nuclear magnetic resonance singlet state lifetimes of 31 P pairs have heretofore not been reported. Couplings between 1 H and 31 P nuclei lead to magnetic inequivalence and serve as a mechanism of singlet state population conversion within this molecule. We show that in this molecule singlet relaxation occurs at a rate significantly faster than spin–lattice relaxation, and that anticorrelated chemical shift anisotropy can account for this observation. Calculations of this mechanism, with the help of molecular dynamics simulations and ab initio calculations, provide excellent agreement with the experimental findings. This study could provide guidance for the study of 31 P singlets within other compounds, including biomolecules.
; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
19465 to 19471
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. The examination and optimized preparation of nuclear spin singlet order has enabled the development of new types of applications that rely on potentially long-term polarization storage. Lifetimes several orders of magnitude longer than T 1 have been observed. The efficient creation of such states relies on special pulse sequences. The extreme cases of very large and very small magnetic equivalence received primary attention, while relatively little effort has been directed towards studying singlet relaxation in the intermediate regime. The intermediate case is of interest as it is relevant for many spin systems, and would also apply to heteronuclear systems in very low magnetic fields. Experimental evidence for singlet–triplet leakage in the intermediate regime is sparse. Here we describe a pulse sequence for efficiently creating singlets in the intermediate regime in a broad-band fashion. Singlet lifetimes are studied with a specially synthesized molecule over a wide range of magnetic fields using a home-built sample-lift apparatus. The experimental results are supplemented with spin simulations using parameters obtained from ab initio calculations. This work indicates that the chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) mechanism is relatively weak compared to singlet–triplet leakage for the proton system observed over a large magnetic field range. These experiments providemore »a mechanism for expanding the scope of singlet NMR to a larger class of molecules, and provide new insights into singlet lifetime limiting factors.« less
  2. Lanthanide metallocenophanes are an intriguing class of organometallic complexes that feature rare six-coordinate trigonal prismatic coordination environments of 4f elements with close intramolecular proximity to transition metal ions. Herein, we present a systematic study of the structural and magnetic properties of the ferrocenophanes, [LnFc 3 (THF) 2 Li 2 ] − , of the late trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln = Gd ( 1 ), Ho ( 2 ), Er ( 3 ), Tm ( 4 ), Yb ( 5 ), Lu ( 6 )). One major structural trend within this class of complexes is the increasing diferrocenyl (Fc 2− ) average twist angle with decreasing ionic radius ( r ion ) of the central Ln ion, resulting in the largest average Fc 2− twist angles for the Lu 3+ compound 6 . Such high sensitivity of the twist angle to changes in r ion is unique to the here presented ferrocenophane complexes and likely due to the large trigonal plane separation enforced by the ligand (>3.2 Å). This geometry also allows the non-Kramers ion Ho 3+ to exhibit slow magnetic relaxation in the absence of applied dc fields, rendering compound 2 a rare example of a Ho-based single-molecule magnet (SMM)more »with barriers to magnetization reversal ( U ) of 110–131 cm −1 . In contrast, compounds featuring Ln ions with prolate electron density ( 3–5 ) don't show slow magnetization dynamics under the same conditions. The observed trends in magnetic properties of 2–5 are supported by state-of-the-art ab initio calculations. Finally, the magneto-structural relationship of the trigonal prismatic Ho-[1]ferrocenophane motif was further investigated by axial ligand (THF in 2 ) exchange to yield [HoFc 3 (THF*) 2 Li 2 ] − ( 2-THF* ) and [HoFc 3 (py) 2 Li 2 ] − ( 2-py ) motifs. We find that larger average Fc 2− twist angles (in 2-THF* and 2-py as compared to in 2 ) result in faster magnetic relaxation times at a given temperature.« less
  3. The molecule-based ferrimagnetic semiconductor vanadium tetracyanoethylene (V[TCNE] x , x [Formula: see text] 2) has garnered interest from the quantum information community due to its excellent coherent magnonic properties and ease of on-chip integration. Despite these attractive properties, a detailed understanding of the electronic structure and mechanism for long-range magnetic ordering have remained elusive due to a lack of detailed atomic and electronic structural information. Previous studies via x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy and the extended x-ray absorption fine structure have led to various proposed structures, and in general, V[TCNE] x is believed to be a three-dimensional network of octahedrally coordinated V 2+ , each bonded to six TCNE molecules. Here, we elucidate the electronic structure, structural ordering, and degradation pathways of V[TCNE] x films by correlating calculations of density functional theory (DFT) with scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) of V[TCNE] x films. Low-loss EELS measurements reveal a bandgap and an excited state structure that agree quantitatively with DFT modeling, including an energy splitting between apical and equatorial TCNE ligands within the structure, providing experimental results directly backed by theoretical descriptions of the electronic structure driving the robust magnetic ordering in these films. Core-loss EELS confirmsmore »the presence of octahedrally coordinated V +2 atoms. Upon oxidation, changes in the C1s- π* peak indicate that C=C of TCNE is preferentially attacked. Furthermore, we identify a relaxation of the structural ordering as the films age. These results lay the foundation for a more comprehensive and fundamental understanding of magnetic ordering and dynamics in these classes of metal–ligand compounds.« less
  4. Nuclear spin singlet states are often found to allow long-lived storage of nuclear magnetization, which can form the basis of novel applications in spectroscopy, imaging, and in studies of dynamic processes. Precisely how long such polarization remains intact, and which factors affect its lifetime is often difficult to determine and predict. We present a combined experimental/computational study to demonstrate that molecular dynamics simulations and ab initio calculations can be used to fully account for the experimentally observed proton singlet lifetimes in ethyl-d 5 -propyl-d 7 -maleate in deuterated chloroform as solvent. The correspondence between experiment and simulations is achieved without adjustable parameters. These studies highlight the importance of considering unusual and difficult-to-control mechanisms, such as dipolar couplings to low-gamma solvent nuclei, and to residual paramagnetic species, which often can represent lifetime limiting factors. These results also point to the power of molecular dynamics simulations to provide insights into little-known NMR relaxation mechanisms.
  5. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is widely used to enhance solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensitivity. Its efficiency as a generic signal-enhancing approach for liquid state NMR, however, decays rapidly with magnetic field B 0 , unless mediated by scalar interactions arising only in exceptional cases. This has prevented a more widespread use of DNP in structural and dynamical solution NMR analyses. This study introduces a potential solution to this problem, relying on biradicals with exchange couplings J ex of the order of the electron Larmor frequency ω E . Numerical and analytical calculations show that in such J ex ≈ ± ω E cases a phenomenon akin to that occurring in chemically induced DNP (CIDNP) happens, leading to different relaxation rates for the biradical singlet and triplet states which are hyperfine-coupled to the nuclear α or β states. Microwave irradiation can then generate a transient nuclear polarization build-up with high efficiency, at all magnetic fields that are relevant in contemporary NMR, and for all rotational diffusion correlation times that occur in small- and medium-sized molecules in conventional solvents.