skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on December 1, 2022

Title: Identification of the cosmogenic $$^{11}$$C background in large volumes of liquid scintillators with Borexino
Abstract Cosmogenic radio-nuclei are an important source of background for low-energy neutrino experiments. In Borexino, cosmogenic $$^{11}$$ 11 C decays outnumber solar pep and CNO neutrino events by about ten to one. In order to extract the flux of these two neutrino species, a highly efficient identification of this background is mandatory. We present here the details of the most consolidated strategy, used throughout Borexino solar neutrino measurements. It hinges upon finding the space-time correlations between $$^{11}$$ 11 C decays, the preceding parent muons and the accompanying neutrons. This article describes the working principles and evaluates the performance of this Three-Fold Coincidence (TFC) technique in its two current implementations: a hard-cut and a likelihood-based approach. Both show stable performances throughout Borexino Phases II (2012–2016) and III (2016–2020) data sets, with a $$^{11}$$ 11 C tagging efficiency of $$\sim 90$$ ∼ 90  % and $$\sim $$ ∼  63–66 % of the exposure surviving the tagging. We present also a novel technique that targets specifically $$^{11}$$ 11 C produced in high-multiplicity during major spallation events. Such $$^{11}$$ 11 C appear as a burst of events, whose space-time correlation can be exploited. Burst identification can be combined with the TFC to obtain about the more » same tagging efficiency of $$\sim 90\%$$ ∼ 90 % but with a higher fraction of the exposure surviving, in the range of $$\sim $$ ∼  66–68 %. « less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more » ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Award ID(s):
1821085 1821071
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10337784
Journal Name:
The European Physical Journal C
Volume:
81
Issue:
12
ISSN:
1434-6044
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract Neutrinos emitted in the carbon, nitrogen, oxygen (CNO) fusion cycle in the Sun are a sub-dominant, yet crucial component of solar neutrinos whose flux has not been measured yet. The Borexino experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy) has a unique opportunity to detect them directly thanks to the detector’s radiopurity and the precise understanding of the detector backgrounds. We discuss the sensitivity of Borexino to CNO neutrinos, which is based on the strategies we adopted to constrain the rates of the two most relevant background sources, $$pep$$ pep neutrinos from the solar pp -chain and $$^{210}$$more »210 Bi beta decays originating in the intrinsic contamination of the liquid scintillator with $$^{210}$$ 210 Pb. Assuming the CNO flux predicted by the high-metallicity Standard Solar Model and an exposure of 1000 days $$\times $$ × 71.3 t, Borexino has a median sensitivity to CNO neutrino higher than 3 $$\sigma $$ σ . With the same hypothesis the expected experimental uncertainty on the CNO neutrino flux is 23%, provided the uncertainty on the independent estimate of the $$^{210}\text {Bi}$$ 210 Bi  interaction rate is 1.5 $$\hbox {cpd}/100~\hbox {ton}$$ cpd / 100 ton  . Finally, we evaluated the expected uncertainty of the C and N abundances and the expected discrimination significance between the high and low metallicity Standard Solar Models (HZ and LZ) with future more precise measurement of the CNO solar neutrino flux.« less
  2. We performed a n − ¯n oscillation search with SK-I-IV data using a multivariate analysis. Compared to previous results [15], the updated final state interaction model predicts fewer pions and less separation between signal and neutrino backgrounds. With the advanced MVA method and the inclusion of multiple new variables, the sensitivity of this analysis is still greatly enhanced. For the 0.37 megaton-year exposure at SK, we observed 11 events with an expected background of 9.3  2.7 events. There is no statistically significant excess of data events, so a lower limit on the neutron lifetime is set at 3.6 ×more »1032 years at 90% C.L., corresponding to a lower limit on the neutron-antineutron oscillation time in 16O of τn→¯n > 4.7 × 108 s. This is the world’s most stringent limit on neutron-antineutron oscillation so far, with 90% improvement from the previous best limit [15], and is reaching the predicted parameter space of some theoretical models.« less
  3. Abstract We report on a search for electron antineutrinos ( ν ¯ e ) from astrophysical sources in the neutrino energy range 8.3–30.8 MeV with the KamLAND detector. In an exposure of 6.72 kton-year of the liquid scintillator, we observe 18 candidate events via the inverse beta decay reaction. Although there is a large background uncertainty from neutral current atmospheric neutrino interactions, we find no significant excess over background model predictions. Assuming several supernova relic neutrino spectra, we give upper flux limits of 60–110 cm −2 s −1 (90% confidence level, CL) in the analysis range and present a model-independentmore »flux. We also set limits on the annihilation rates for light dark matter pairs to neutrino pairs. These data improve on the upper probability limit of 8 B solar neutrinos converting into ν ¯ e , P ν e → ν ¯ e < 3.5 × 10 − 5 (90% CL) assuming an undistorted ν ¯ e shape. This corresponds to a solar ν ¯ e flux of 60 cm −2 s −1 (90% CL) in the analysis energy range.« less
  4. Abstract Several improvements to the ATLAS triggers used to identify jets containing b -hadrons ( b -jets) were implemented for data-taking during Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider from 2016 to 2018. These changes include reconfiguring the b -jet trigger software to improve primary-vertex finding and allow more stable running in conditions with high pile-up, and the implementation of the functionality needed to run sophisticated taggers used by the offline reconstruction in an online environment. These improvements yielded an order of magnitude better light-flavour jet rejection for the same b -jet identification efficiency compared to the performance in Run 1 (2011–2012).more »The efficiency to identify b -jets in the trigger, and the conditional efficiency for b -jets that satisfy offline b -tagging requirements to pass the trigger are also measured. Correction factors are derived to calibrate the b -tagging efficiency in simulation to match that observed in data. The associated systematic uncertainties are substantially smaller than in previous measurements. In addition, b -jet triggers were operated for the first time during heavy-ion data-taking, using dedicated triggers that were developed to identify semileptonic b -hadron decays by selecting events with geometrically overlapping muons and jets.« less
  5. Abstract The search for neutrino events in correlation with 42 most intense fast radio bursts (FRBs) has been performed using the Borexino dataset from 05/2007 to 06/2021. We have searched for signals with visible energies above 250 keV within a time window of $$\pm \, 1000$$ ± 1000  s corresponding to detection time of a particular FRB. We also applied an alternative approach based on searching for specific shapes of neutrino-electron scattering spectra in the full exposure data of the Borexino detector. In particular, two incoming neutrino spectra were considered: the monoenergetic line and the spectrum expected from supernovae. The samemore »spectra were considered for electron antineutrinos detected through inverse beta-decay reaction. No statistically significant excess over the background was observed. As a result, the strongest upper limits on FRB-associated neutrino fluences of all flavors have been obtained in the 0.5–50 MeV neutrino energy range.« less