skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on December 1, 2022

Title: A Wide Planetary Mass Companion Discovered through the Citizen Science Project Backyard Worlds: Planet 9
Abstract Through the Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 citizen science project we discovered a late-type L dwarf co-moving with the young K0 star BD+60 1417 at a projected separation of 37″ or 1662 au. The secondary—CWISER J124332.12+600126.2 (W1243)—is detected in both the CatWISE2020 and 2MASS reject tables. The photometric distance and CatWISE proper motion both match that of the primary within ∼1 σ and our estimates for a chance alignment yield a zero probability. Follow-up near-infrared spectroscopy reveals W1243 to be a very red 2MASS ( J – K s = 2.72), low surface gravity source that we classify as L6–L8 γ . Its spectral morphology strongly resembles that of confirmed late-type L dwarfs in 10–150 Myr moving groups as well as that of planetary mass companions. The position on near- and mid-infrared color–magnitude diagrams indicates the source is redder and fainter than the field sequence, a telltale sign of an object with thick clouds and a complex atmosphere. For the primary we obtained new optical spectroscopy and analyzed all available literature information for youth indicators. We conclude that the Li i abundance, its loci on color–magnitude and color–color diagrams, and the rotation rate revealed in multiple TESS sectors are all more » consistent with an age of 50–150 Myr. Using our re-evaluated age of the primary and the Gaia parallax, along with the photometry and spectrum for W1243, we find T eff = 1303 ± 31 K, log g = 4.3 ± 0.17 cm s −2 , and a mass of 15 ± 5 M Jup . We find a physical separation of ∼1662 au and a mass ratio of ∼0.01 for this system. Placing it in the context of the diverse collection of binary stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary companions, the BD+60 1417 system falls in a sparsely sampled area where the formation pathway is difficult to assess. « less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more » ; ; ; ; « less
Award ID(s):
2009136 2009177
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10338557
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Volume:
923
Issue:
1
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
48
ISSN:
0004-637X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We present the characterization of the low-gravity M6 dwarf 2MASS J06195260-2903592, previously identified as an unusual field object based on its strong IR excess and variable near-IR spectrum. Multiple epochs of low-resolution (R≈ 150) near-IR spectra show large-amplitude (≈0.1–0.5 mag) continuum variations on timescales of days to 12 yr, unlike the small-amplitude variability typical for field ultracool dwarfs. The variations between epochs are well-modeled as changes in the relative extinction (ΔAV≈ 2 mag). Similarly, Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 optical photometry varies on timescales as long as 11 yr (and possibly as short as an hour) and implies comparableAVchanges. Near Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-IR light curves also suggest changes on 6 month timescales, with amplitudes consistent with the optical/near-IR extinction variations. However, near-IR spectra, near-IR photometry, and optical photometry obtained in the past year indicate that the source can also be stable on hourly and monthly timescales. From comparison to objects of similar spectral type, the total extinction of 2MASS J0619-2903 seems to beAV≈ 4–6 mag, with perhaps epochs of lower extinction. Gaia Early Data Release 3 (EDR3) finds that 2MASS J0619-2903 has a wide-separation (1.′2 = 10,450 au) stellar companion, with anmore »isochronal age of3110+22Myr and a mass of0.300.03+0.04M. Adopting this companion’s age and EDR3 distance (145.2 ± 0.6 pc), we estimate a mass of 0.11–0.17Mfor 2MASS J0619-2903. Altogether, 2MASS J0619-2903 appears to possess an unusually long-lived primordial circumstellar disk, perhaps making it a more obscured analog to the “Peter Pan” disks found around a few M dwarfs in nearby young moving groups.

    « less
  2. Context. HD 113337 is a main-sequence F6V field star more massive than the Sun. This star hosts one confirmed giant planet and possibly a second candidate, detected by radial velocities (RVs). The star also hosts a cold debris disc detected through the presence of an infrared excess, making it an interesting system to explore. Aims. We aim to bring new constraints on the star’s fundamental parameters, debris disc properties, and planetary companion(s) by combining complementary techniques. Methods. We used the VEGA interferometer on the CHARA array to measure the angular diameter of HD 113337. We derived its linear radius using the parallax from the Gaia Second Data Release. We computed the bolometric flux to derive its effective temperature and luminosity, and we estimated its mass and age using evolutionary tracks. Then, we used Herschel images to partially resolve the outer debris disc and estimate its extension and inclination. Next, we acquired high-contrast images of HD 113337 with the LBTI to probe the ~10–80 au separation range. Finally, we combined the deduced contrast maps with previous RVs of the star using the MESS2 software to bring upper mass limits on possible companions at all separations up to 80 au. We tookmore »advantage of the constraints on the age and inclination brought by fundamental parameter analysis and disc imaging, respectively, for this analysis. Results. We derive a limb-darkened angular diameter of 0.386 ± 0.009 mas that converts into a linear radius of 1.50 ± 0.04 R ⊙ for HD 113337. The fundamental parameter analysis leads to an effective temperature of 6774 ± 125 K and to two possible age solutions: one young within 14–21 Myr and one old within 0.8–1.7 Gyr. We partially resolve the known outer debris disc and model its emission. Our best solution corresponds to a radius of 85 ± 20 au, an extension of 30 ± 20 au, and an inclination within 10–30° for the outer disc. The combination of imaging contrast limits, published RV, and age and inclination solutions allows us to derive a first possible estimation of the true masses of the planetary companions: ~7 −2 +4 M Jup for HD 113337 b (confirmed companion) and ~16 −3 +10 M Jup for HD 113337 c (candidate companion). We also constrain possible additional companions at larger separations.« less
  3. ABSTRACT

    We search for additional companions in the GJ 367 exoplanet system and aim to better constrain its age and evolutionary status. We analyse high-contrast direct imaging observations obtained with HST/NICMOS, VLT/NACO, and VLT/SPHERE. We investigate and critically discuss conflicting age indicators based on theoretical isochrones and models for Galactic dynamics. A comparison of GAIA EDR3 parallax and photometric measurements with theoretical isochrones suggests a young age ≤60 Myr for GJ 367. The star’s Galactic kinematics exclude membership to any nearby young moving group or stellar stream. Its highly eccentric Galactic orbit, however, is atypical for a young star. Age estimates considering Galactic dynamical evolution are most consistent with an age of 1–8 Gyr. We find no evidence for a significant mid-infrared excess in the WISE bands, suggesting the absence of warm dust in the GJ 367 system. The direct imaging data provide significantly improved detection limits compared to previous studies. At 530 mas (5 au) separation, the SPHERE data achieve a 5σ contrast of 2.6 × 10−6. The data exclude the presence of a stellar companion at projected separations ≥0.4 au. At projected separations ≥5 au we can exclude substellar companions with a mass ≥1.5 MJup for an age of 50 Myr, and ≥20 MJup for an age of 5 Gyr. By applying themore »stellar parameters corresponding to the 50 Myr isochrone, we derive a bulk density of ρplanet = 6.2 g cm−3 for GJ 367 b, which is 25 per cent smaller than a previous estimate.

    « less
  4. We present follow-up spectroscopy of 711 white dwarfs within 100 pc, and present a detailed model atmosphere analysis of the 100 pc white dwarf sample in the SDSS footprint. Our spectroscopic follow-up is complete for 83% of the white dwarfs hotter than 6000 K, where the atmospheric composition can be constrained reliably. We identify 1508 DA white dwarfs with pure hydrogen atmospheres. The DA mass distribution has an extremely narrow peak at $0.59~M_{\odot}$, and reveals a shoulder from relatively massive white dwarfs with $M=0.7$-$0.9~M_{\odot}$. Comparing this distribution with binary population synthesis models, we find that the contribution from single stars that form through mergers cannot explain the over-abundance of massive white dwarfs. In addition, the mass distribution of cool DAs shows a near absence of $M>1~M_{\odot}$ white dwarfs. The pile-up of 0.7-$0.9~M_{\odot}$ and the disappearance of $M>1~M_{\odot}$ white dwarfs is consistent with the effects of core crystallization. Even though the evolutionary models predict the location of the pile-up correctly, the delay from the latent heat of crystallization by itself is insufficient to create a significant pile-up, and additional cooling delays from related effects like phase separation are necessary. We also discuss the population of infrared-faint (ultracool) white dwarfs, and demonstratemore »for the first time the existence of a well defined sequence in color and magnitude. Curiously, this sequence is connected to a region in the color-magnitude diagrams where the number of helium-dominated atmosphere white dwarfs is low. This suggests that the infrared-faint white dwarfs likely have mixed H/He atmospheres.« less
  5. We have used the Jansky VLA to observe a sample of 5 known aurorally emitting late L and T dwarfs ranging in age from 0.2-3.4 Gyr. We observed each target for seven hours, extending to higher frequencies than previously attempted for objects in this sample. We establish proportionally higher limits on maximum surface magnetic field strengths while simultaneously placing constraints on rotation periods through detections of repeating pulses. Observations at 8{12 GHz yield measurements of 3.7{4.1 kG localized field strengths (corresponding to minimum mean surface fields between 2.7{2.9 kG) on four of our targets, including the archetypal cloud variable T2.5 dwarf SIMP J01365663+0933473 recently proposed to be a possible planetary-mass object in the Carina-Near moving group. We detect a circularly polarized radio pulse at 15{16.5 GHz for the T6.5 dwarf 2MASS 10475385+2124234, corresponding to a localized 5.6 kG field strength and minimum mean surface field of 4.0 kG. For the same object, we also tentatively detect a circularly polarized radio pulse at 16.5{18 GHz corresponding to a localized 6.2 kG field strength and minimum mean surface field of 4.4 kG. We measure rotation periods between 1.44-2.88 hr for all targets, supporting i) the emerging consensus in convective dynamo models thatmore »rapid rotation may be important for producing strong dipole fields and/or ii) rapid rotation is a key ingredient for driving the current systems powering auroral radio emission. We do not detect a clear cutoff in the pulsed emission for any targets, which would correspond to a maximum local surface magnetic field strength. However, we do observe evidence of variable structure in the frequency-dependent timeseries of our targets on timescales shorter than a rotation period, suggesting a higher degree of variability in the current systems near the surfaces of brown dwarfs, where emission at the highest frequencies are expected to probe. Finally, we find that old brown dwarfs may generate fields as strong as young brown dwarfs.« less