- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- e1150 to e1162
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Systematic Heritability and Heritability Enrichment Analysis for Diabetes Complications in UK Biobank and ACCORD StudiesDiabetes-related complications reflect longstanding damage to small and large vessels throughout the body. In addition to the duration of diabetes and poor glycemic control, genetic factors are important contributors to the variability in the development of vascular complications. Early heritability studies found strong familial clustering of both macrovascular and microvascular complications. However, they were limited by small sample sizes and large phenotypic heterogeneity, leading to less accurate estimates. We take advantage of two independent studies—UK Biobank and the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes trial—to survey the single nucleotide polymorphism heritability for diabetes microvascular (diabetic kidney disease and diabetic retinopathy) and macrovascular (cardiovascular events) complications. Heritability for diabetic kidney disease was estimated at 29%. The heritability estimate for microalbuminuria ranged from 24 to 60% and was 41% for macroalbuminuria. Heritability estimates of diabetic retinopathy ranged from 6 to 33%, depending on the phenotype definition. More severe diabetes retinopathy possessed higher genetic contributions. We show, for the first time, that rare variants account for much of the heritability of diabetic retinopathy. This study suggests that a large portion of the genetic risk of diabetes complications is yet to be discovered and emphasizes the need for additional genetic studies of diabetesmore »
Pancreatic islet cryopreservation by vitrification achieves high viability, function, recovery and clinical scalability for transplantationAbstract Pancreatic islet transplantation can cure diabetes but requires accessible, high-quality islets in sufficient quantities. Cryopreservation could solve islet supply chain challenges by enabling quality-controlled banking and pooling of donor islets. Unfortunately, cryopreservation has not succeeded in this objective, as it must simultaneously provide high recovery, viability, function and scalability. Here, we achieve this goal in mouse, porcine, human and human stem cell (SC)-derived beta cell (SC-beta) islets by comprehensive optimization of cryoprotectant agent (CPA) composition, CPA loading and unloading conditions and methods for vitrification and rewarming (VR). Post-VR islet viability, relative to control, was 90.5% for mouse, 92.1% for SC-beta, 87.2% for porcine and 87.4% for human islets, and it remained unchanged for at least 9 months of cryogenic storage. VR islets had normal macroscopic, microscopic, and ultrastructural morphology. Mitochondrial membrane potential and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were slightly reduced, but all other measures of cellular respiration, including oxygen consumption rate (OCR) to produce ATP, were unchanged. VR islets had normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) function in vitro and in vivo. Porcine and SC-beta islets made insulin in xenotransplant models, and mouse islets tested in a marginal mass syngeneic transplant model cured diabetes in 92% of recipients within 24–48 hmore »
There has been growing interest in studying postprandial glucose responses using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in nondiabetic individuals. Accurate measurement of glucose responses to meals can facilitate applications such as precision nutrition and early detection of diabetes.
We aimed to quantify the discordance between simultaneous postprandial glucose measurements made using plasma and CGM.
We studied 10 nondiabetic older adults who randomly consumed 9 predefined meals of varying macronutrient compositions. Glucose was measured for 8 h after the meal by the CGM, blood samples for plasma collection were taken regularly, and plasma glucose was quantified using gold-standard laboratory measurement and a fingerstick blood glucose meter. The primary outcome measured was the mean absolute relative difference (MARD) of CGM and fingerstick measurements relative to the gold standard. Secondary outcomes were Bland–Altman statistics, Clarke Error Grid, and time in range metrics. Additional subgroup analyses were performed by stratifying the postprandial glucose measurements based on the macronutrient composition of the meals.
When compared against the gold-standard postprandial glucose measurements, the fingerstick meter was more accurate (MARD: 8.0%; 95% CI: 7.6%, 8.6%) than the CGM (MARD: 13.7%; 95% CI: 13.1%, 14.3%; P < 0.0001). After the meals, Bland–Altman analysis demonstrated that the CGM underestimated the 8-hmore »
We discovered discordance between gold standard, fingerstick, and CGM in measuring plasma glucose concentrations after a meal. Consequently, emerging applications of CGM in healthy individuals, such as precision nutrition and diabetes onset prediction, may need to account for these discordances.
This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT04928872.
A short-term religious “fast” from animal products has a minimal impact on cardiometabolic health biomarkers irrespective of concurrent shifts in distinct plant-based food groups
Plant-based diets may help improve measures of body fat, blood cholesterol, glucose metabolism, and inflammation. However, limited evidence suggests that the health effects of reducing animal products may depend on the quality of plant-based foods consumed as caloric replacements.
This study examined how temporarily restricting consumption of meat, dairy, and egg (MDE) products for religious purposes influences cardiometabolic health biomarkers and whether any effects of MDE restriction on biomarkers are modified by concurrent shifts in calories, fish, and distinct plant-based foods.
This study followed a sample of 99 individuals in the United States with varying degrees of adherence to Orthodox Christian (OC) guidance to abstain from MDE products during Lent, the 48-d period prior to Easter. Dietary composition was estimated from FFQs and 7-d food records; measures of body fat, blood lipids, glucose metabolism, and inflammation were collected prior to and at the end of Lent.
Each serving decrease in MDE products was associated with an average −3.7% (95% CI: −5.5%, −2.0%; P < 0.0001) and −3.6% (95% CI: −5.8%, −1.3%; P = 0.003) change in fasting total and LDL blood cholesterol, respectively, which were partly explained by minor weight loss. However, the total/HDL cholesterol ratio did not significantly decrease due to anmore »
Temporary MDE restrictions practiced by this sample of OCs in the United States during Lent had minimal effects on cardiometabolic disease risk factors. Further research among larger samples of OCs is needed to understand how nutritionally distinct and complex combinations of plant-based foods may modify the health effects of religious fasting from MDE products.
Buchner, David A. (Ed.)Several studies have found associations between higher pancreatic fat content and adverse health outcomes, such as diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, but investigations into the genetic contributions to pancreatic fat are limited. This genome-wide association study, comprised of 804 participants with MRI-assessed pancreatic fat measurements, was conducted in the ethnically diverse Multiethnic Cohort-Adiposity Phenotype Study (MEC-APS). Two genetic variants reaching genome-wide significance, rs73449607 on chromosome 13q21.2 (Beta = -0.67, P = 4.50x10 -8 ) and rs7996760 on chromosome 6q14 (Beta = -0.90, P = 4.91x10 -8 ) were associated with percent pancreatic fat on the log scale. Rs73449607 was most common in the African American population (13%) and rs79967607 was most common in the European American population (6%). Rs73449607 was also associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.89–1.00, P = 0.047) in the Population Architecture Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study and the DIAbetes Genetics Replication and Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM), which included substantial numbers of non-European ancestry participants (53,102 cases and 193,679 controls). Rs73449607 is located in an intergenic region between GSX1 and PLUTO , and rs79967607 is in intron 1 of EPM2A . PLUTO , a lncRNA , regulates transcription of an adjacentmore »