skip to main content


Title: Initiation of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Is Linked to Improved Glycemic Control and Fewer Clinical Events in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in the Veterans Health Administration
OBJECTIVE

To determine the benefit of starting continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in adult-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) with regard to longer-term glucose control and serious clinical events.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

A retrospective observational cohort study within the Veterans Affairs Health Care System was used to compare glucose control and hypoglycemia- or hyperglycemia-related admission to an emergency room or hospital and all-cause hospitalization between propensity score overlap weighted initiators of CGM and nonusers over 12 months.

RESULTS

CGM users receiving insulin (n = 5,015 with T1D and n = 15,706 with T2D) and similar numbers of nonusers were identified from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2020. Declines in HbA1c were significantly greater in CGM users with T1D (−0.26%; 95% CI −0.33, −0.19%) and T2D (−0.35%; 95% CI −0.40, −0.31%) than in nonusers at 12 months. Percentages of patients achieving HbA1c <8 and <9% after 12 months were greater in CGM users. In T1D, CGM initiation was associated with significantly reduced risk of hypoglycemia (hazard ratio [HR] 0.69; 95% CI 0.48, 0.98) and all-cause hospitalization (HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.63, 0.90). In patients with T2D, there was a reduction in risk of hyperglycemia in CGM users (HR 0.87; 95% CI 0.77, 0.99) and all-cause hospitalization (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.83, 0.97). Several subgroups (based on baseline age, HbA1c, hypoglycemic risk, or follow-up CGM use) had even greater responses.

CONCLUSIONS

In a large national cohort, initiation of CGM was associated with sustained improvement in HbA1c in patients with later-onset T1D and patients with T2D using insulin. This was accompanied by a clear pattern of reduced risk of admission to an emergency room or hospital for hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia and of all-cause hospitalization.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
2054253 2205441
NSF-PAR ID:
10503123
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
American Diabetes Association
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Diabetes Care
Volume:
46
Issue:
4
ISSN:
0149-5992
Page Range / eLocation ID:
854 to 863
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. OBJECTIVE

    To characterize high type 1 diabetes (T1D) genetic risk in a population where type 2 diabetes (T2D) predominates.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

    Characteristics typically associated with T1D were assessed in 109,594 Million Veteran Program participants with adult-onset diabetes, 2011–2021, who had T1D genetic risk scores (GRS) defined as low (0 to <45%), medium (45 to <90%), high (90 to <95%), or highest (≥95%).

    RESULTS

    T1D characteristics increased progressively with higher genetic risk (P < 0.001 for trend). A GRS ≥ 90% was more common with diabetes diagnoses before age 40 years, but 95% of those participants were diagnosed at age ≥40 years, and they resembled T2D in mean age (64.3 years) and BMI (32.3 kg/m2). Compared with the low risk group, the highest-risk group was more likely to have diabetic ketoacidosis (low 0.9% vs. highest GRS 3.7%), hypoglycemia prompting emergency visits (3.7% vs. 5.8%), outpatient plasma glucose <50 mg/dL (7.5% vs. 13.4%), a shorter median time to start insulin (3.5 vs. 1.4 years), use of a T1D diagnostic code (16.3% vs. 28.1%), low C-peptide levels if tested (1.8% vs. 32.4%), and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (6.9% vs. 45.2%), all P < 0.001.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Characteristics associated with T1D were increased with higher genetic risk, and especially with the top 10% of risk. However, the age and BMI of those participants resemble people with T2D, and a substantial proportion did not have diagnostic testing or use of T1D diagnostic codes. T1D genetic screening could be used to aid identification of adult-onset T1D in settings in which T2D predominates.

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    In type 2 diabetes (T2D), the dawn phenomenon is an overnight glucose rise recognized to contribute to overall glycemia and is a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Existing CGM-based approaches do not account for sensor error, which can mask the true extent of the dawn phenomenon. To address this challenge, we developed a probabilistic framework that incorporates sensor error to assign a probability to the occurrence of dawn phenomenon. In contrast, the current approaches label glucose fluctuations as dawn phenomena as a binary yes/no. We compared the proposed probabilistic model with a standard binary model on CGM data from 173 participants (71% female, 87% Hispanic/Latino, 54 ± 12 years, with either a diagnosis of T2D for six months or with an elevated risk of T2D) stratified by HbA1clevels into normal but at risk for T2D, with pre-T2D, or with non-insulin-treated T2D. The probabilistic model revealed a higher dawn phenomenon frequency in T2D [49% (95% CI 37–63%)] compared to pre-T2D [36% (95% CI 31–48%), p = 0.01] and at-risk participants [34% (95% CI 27–39%), p < 0.0001]. While these trends were also found using the binary approach, the probabilistic model identified significantly greater dawn phenomenon frequency than the traditional binary model across all three HbA1csub-groups (p < 0.0001), indicating its potential to detect the dawn phenomenon earlier across diabetes risk categories.

     
    more » « less
  3. Importance Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is associated with improvements in hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) in youths with type 1 diabetes (T1D); however, youths from minoritized racial and ethnic groups and those with public insurance face greater barriers to CGM access. Early initiation of and access to CGM may reduce disparities in CGM uptake and improve diabetes outcomes. Objective To determine whether HbA 1c decreases differed by ethnicity and insurance status among a cohort of youths newly diagnosed with T1D and provided CGM. Design, Setting, and Participants This cohort study used data from the Teamwork, Targets, Technology, and Tight Control (4T) study, a clinical research program that aims to initiate CGM within 1 month of T1D diagnosis. All youths with new-onset T1D diagnosed between July 25, 2018, and June 15, 2020, at Stanford Children’s Hospital, a single-site, freestanding children’s hospital in California, were approached to enroll in the Pilot-4T study and were followed for 12 months. Data analysis was performed and completed on June 3, 2022. Exposures All eligible participants were offered CGM within 1 month of diabetes diagnosis. Main Outcomes and Measures To assess HbA 1c change over the study period, analyses were stratified by ethnicity (Hispanic vs non-Hispanic) or insurance status (public vs private) to compare the Pilot-4T cohort with a historical cohort of 272 youths diagnosed with T1D between June 1, 2014, and December 28, 2016. Results The Pilot-4T cohort comprised 135 youths, with a median age of 9.7 years (IQR, 6.8-12.7 years) at diagnosis. There were 71 boys (52.6%) and 64 girls (47.4%). Based on self-report, participants’ race was categorized as Asian or Pacific Islander (19 [14.1%]), White (62 [45.9%]), or other race (39 [28.9%]); race was missing or not reported for 15 participants (11.1%). Participants also self-reported their ethnicity as Hispanic (29 [21.5%]) or non-Hispanic (92 [68.1%]). A total of 104 participants (77.0%) had private insurance and 31 (23.0%) had public insurance. Compared with the historical cohort, similar reductions in HbA 1c at 6, 9, and 12 months postdiagnosis were observed for Hispanic individuals (estimated difference, −0.26% [95% CI, −1.05% to 0.43%], −0.60% [−1.46% to 0.21%], and −0.15% [−1.48% to 0.80%]) and non-Hispanic individuals (estimated difference, −0.27% [95% CI, −0.62% to 0.10%], −0.50% [−0.81% to −0.11%], and −0.47% [−0.91% to 0.06%]) in the Pilot-4T cohort. Similar reductions in HbA 1c at 6, 9, and 12 months postdiagnosis were also observed for publicly insured individuals (estimated difference, −0.52% [95% CI, −1.22% to 0.15%], −0.38% [−1.26% to 0.33%], and −0.57% [−2.08% to 0.74%]) and privately insured individuals (estimated difference, −0.34% [95% CI, −0.67% to 0.03%], −0.57% [−0.85% to −0.26%], and −0.43% [−0.85% to 0.01%]) in the Pilot-4T cohort. Hispanic youths in the Pilot-4T cohort had higher HbA 1c at 6, 9, and 12 months postdiagnosis than non-Hispanic youths (estimated difference, 0.28% [95% CI, −0.46% to 0.86%], 0.63% [0.02% to 1.20%], and 1.39% [0.37% to 1.96%]), as did publicly insured youths compared with privately insured youths (estimated difference, 0.39% [95% CI, −0.23% to 0.99%], 0.95% [0.28% to 1.45%], and 1.16% [−0.09% to 2.13%]). Conclusions and Relevance The findings of this cohort study suggest that CGM initiation soon after diagnosis is associated with similar improvements in HbA 1c for Hispanic and non-Hispanic youths as well as for publicly and privately insured youths. These results further suggest that equitable access to CGM soon after T1D diagnosis may be a first step to improve HbA 1c for all youths but is unlikely to eliminate disparities entirely. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04336969 
    more » « less
  4. OBJECTIVE

    To establish a polyexposure score (PXS) for type 2 diabetes (T2D) incorporating 12 nongenetic exposures and examine whether a PXS and/or a polygenic risk score (PGS) improves diabetes prediction beyond traditional clinical risk factors.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

    We identified 356,621 unrelated individuals from the UK Biobank of White British ancestry with no prior diagnosis of T2D and normal HbA1c levels. Using self-reported and hospital admission information, we deployed a machine learning procedure to select the most predictive and robust factors out of 111 nongenetically ascertained exposure and lifestyle variables for the PXS in prospective T2D. We computed the clinical risk score (CRS) and PGS by taking a weighted sum of eight established clinical risk factors and >6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms, respectively.

    RESULTS

    In the study population, 7,513 had incident T2D. The C-statistics for the PGS, PXS, and CRS models were 0.709, 0.762, and 0.839, respectively. Individuals in the top 10% of PGS, PXS, and CRS had 2.00-, 5.90-, and 9.97-fold greater risk, respectively, compared to the remaining population. Addition of PGS and PXS to CRS improved T2D classification accuracy, with a continuous net reclassification index of 15.2% and 30.1% for cases, respectively, and 7.3% and 16.9% for controls, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS

    For T2D, the PXS provides modest incremental predictive value over established clinical risk factors. However, the concept of PXS merits further consideration in T2D risk stratification and is likely to be useful in other chronic disease risk prediction models.

     
    more » « less
  5. Introduction Studies have reported that antidiabetic medications (ADMs) were associated with lower risk of dementia, but current findings are inconsistent. This study compared the risk of dementia onset in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) treated with sulfonylurea (SU) or thiazolidinedione (TZD) to patients with T2D treated with metformin (MET). Research design and methods This is a prospective observational study within a T2D population using electronic medical records from all sites of the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System. Patients with T2D who initiated ADM from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2017, were aged ≥60 years at the initiation, and were dementia-free were identified. A SU monotherapy group, a TZD monotherapy group, and a control group (MET monotherapy) were assembled based on prescription records. Participants were required to take the assigned treatment for at least 1 year. The primary outcome was all-cause dementia, and the two secondary outcomes were Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia, defined by International Classification of Diseases (ICD), 9th Revision, or ICD, 10th Revision, codes. The risks of developing outcomes were compared using propensity score weighted Cox proportional hazard models. Results Among 559 106 eligible veterans (mean age 65.7 (SD 8.7) years), the all-cause dementia rate was 8.2 cases per 1000 person-years (95% CI 6.0 to 13.7). After at least 1 year of treatment, TZD monotherapy was associated with a 22% lower risk of all-cause dementia onset (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.81), compared with MET monotherapy, and 11% lower for MET and TZD dual therapy (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.93), whereas the risk was 12% higher for SU monotherapy (HR 1.12 95% CI 1.09 to 1.15). Conclusions Among patients with T2D, TZD use was associated with a lower risk of dementia, and SU use was associated with a higher risk compared with MET use. Supplementing SU with either MET or TZD may partially offset its prodementia effects. These findings may help inform medication selection for elderly patients with T2D at high risk of dementia. 
    more » « less