skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on July 1, 2023

Title: Time-of-Flight Quantum Tomography of Single Atom Motion
Time of flight is an intuitive way to determine the velocity of particles and lies at the heart of many capabilities ranging from mass spectrometry to fluid flow measurements. Here we show time-of-flight imaging can realize tomography of a quantum state of motion of a single trapped atom. Tomography of motion requires studying the phase space spanned by both position and momentum. By combining time-of-flight imaging with coherent evolution of the atom in an optical tweezer trap, we are able to access arbitrary quadratures in phase space without relying on coupling to a spin degree of freedom. To create non-classical motional states, we harness quantum tunneling in the versatile potential landscape of optical tweezers, and our tomography both demonstrates Wigner function negativity and assesses coherence of non-stationary states. Our demonstrated tomography concept has wide applicability to a range of particles and will enable characterization of non-classical states of more complex systems or massive dielectric particles.
; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Emergence of fundamental forces from gauge symmetry is among our most profound insights about the physical universe. In nature, such symmetries remain hidden in the space of internal degrees of freedom of subatomic particles. Here we propose a way to realize and study gauge structures in real space, manifest in external degrees of freedom of quantum states. We present a model based on a ring-shaped lattice potential, which allows for both Abelian and non-Abelian constructs. Non trivial Wilson loops are shown possible via physical motion of the system. The underlying physics is based on the close analogy of geometric phase with gauge potentials that has been utilized to create synthetic gauge fields with internal states of ultracold atoms. By scaling up to an array with spatially varying parameters, a discrete gauge field can be realized in position space, and its dynamics mapped over macroscopic size and time scales.

  2. Particles placed inside an Abelian (commutative) gauge field can acquire different phases when traveling along the same path in opposite directions, as is evident from the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Such behaviors can get significantly enriched for a non-Abelian gauge field, where even the ordering of different paths cannot be switched. So far, real-space realizations of gauge fields have been limited to Abelian ones. We report an experimental synthesis of non-Abelian gauge fields in real space and the observation of the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effect with classical waves and classical fluxes. On the basis of optical mode degeneracy, we break time-reversal symmetry in different manners, via temporal modulation and the Faraday effect, to synthesize tunable non-Abelian gauge fields. The Sagnac interference of two final states, obtained by reversely ordered path integrals, demonstrates the noncommutativity of the gauge fields. Our work introduces real-space building blocks for non-Abelian gauge fields, relevant for classical and quantum exotic topological phenomena.
  3. Understanding strongly correlated quantum many-body states is one of the most difficult challenges in modern physics. For example, there remain fundamental open questions on the phase diagram of the Hubbard model, which describes strongly correlated electrons in solids. In this work, we realize the Hubbard Hamiltonian and search for specific patterns within the individual images of many realizations of strongly correlated ultracold fermions in an optical lattice. Upon doping a cold-atom antiferromagnet, we find consistency with geometric strings, entities that may explain the relationship between hole motion and spin order, in both pattern-based and conventional observables. Our results demonstrate the potential for pattern recognition to provide key insights into cold-atom quantum many-body systems.
  4. Abstract. A closed-path quantum-cascade tunable infrared laserdirect absorption spectrometer (QC-TILDAS) was outfitted with an inertialinlet for filter-less separation of particles and several custom-designedcomponents including an aircraft inlet, a vibration isolation mountingplate, and a system for optionally adding active continuous passivation forgas-phase measurements of ammonia (NH3) from a research aircraft. Theinstrument was then deployed on the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft during researchflights and test flights associated with the Western wildfire Experiment forCloud chemistry, Aerosol absorption and Nitrogen (WE-CAN) field campaign.The instrument was configured to measure large, rapid gradients in gas-phaseNH3, over a range of altitudes, in smoke (e.g., ash and particles), inthe boundary layer (e.g., during turbulence and turns), in clouds, and in ahot aircraft cabin (e.g., average aircraft cabin temperatures expected toexceed 30 ∘C during summer deployments). Important designgoals were to minimize motion sensitivity, maintain a reasonable detectionlimit, and minimize NH3 “stickiness” on sampling surfaces to maintainfast time response in flight. The observations indicate that adding ahigh-frequency vibration to the laser objective in the QC-TILDAS andmounting the QC-TILDAS on a custom-designed vibration isolation plate weresuccessful in minimizing motion sensitivity of the instrument during flight.Allan variance analyses indicate that the in-flight precision of theinstrument is 60 ppt at 1 Hz corresponding to a 3σ detectionmore »limitof 180 ppt. Zero signals span ±200, or 400 pptv total, withcabin pressure and temperature and altitude in flight. The option for activecontinuous passivation of the sample flow path with1H,1H-perfluorooctylamine, a strong perfluorinated base, preventedadsorption of both water and basic species to instrument sampling surfaces.Characterization of the time response in flight and on the ground showedthat adding passivant to a “clean” instrument system had little impact onthe time response. In contrast, passivant addition greatly improved the timeresponse when sampling surfaces became contaminated prior to a test flight.The observations further show that passivant addition can be used tomaintain a rapid response for in situ NH3 measurements over the duration of anairborne field campaign (e.g., ∼2 months) since passivantaddition also helps to prevent future buildup of water and basic species oninstrument sampling surfaces. Therefore, we recommend the use of activecontinuous passivation with closed-path NH3 instruments when rapid(>1 Hz) collection of NH3 is important for the scientificobjective of a field campaign (e.g., sampling from aircraft or anothermobile research platform). Passivant addition can be useful for maintainingoptimum operation and data collection in NH3-rich and humid environments orwhen contamination of sampling surfaces is likely, yet frequent cleaning isnot possible. Passivant addition may not be necessary for fast operation,even in polluted environments, if sampling surfaces can be cleaned when thetime response has degraded.« less
  5. Abstract

    The ability to cool quantum gases into the quantum degenerate realm has opened up possibilities for an extreme level of quantum-state control. In this paper, we investigate one such control protocol that demonstrates the resonant amplification of quasimomentum pairs from a Bose–Einstein condensate by the periodic modulation of the two-bodys-wave scattering length. This shows a capability to selectively amplify quantum fluctuations with a predetermined momentum, where the momentum value can be spectroscopically tuned. A classical external field that excites pairs of particles with the same energy but opposite momenta is reminiscent of the coherently-driven nonlinearity in a parametric amplifier crystal in nonlinear optics. For this reason, it may be anticipated that the evolution will generate a ‘squeezed’ matter-wave state in the quasiparticle mode on resonance with the modulation frequency. Our model and analysis is motivated by a recent experiment by Clarket althat observed a time-of-flight pattern similar to an exploding firework (Clarket al2017Nature551356–9). Since the drive is a highly coherent process, we interpret the observed firework patterns as arising from a monotonic growth in the two-body correlation amplitude, so that the jets should contain correlated atom pairs with nearly equal and opposite momenta. We propose a potential future experimentmore »based on applying Ramsey interferometry to experimentally probe these pair correlations.

    « less