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Title: Bilaterally Reduced Rolandic Beta Band Activity in Minor Stroke Patients
Stroke patients with hemiparesis display decreased beta band (13–25Hz) rolandic activity, correlating to impaired motor function. However, clinically, patients without significant weakness, with small lesions far from sensorimotor cortex,More>>
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Digital Repository at the University of Maryland
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magnetoencephalography MEG minor stroke beta rolandic Event Related Synchronization Event Related Desynchronization
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Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Stroke patients with hemiparesis display decreased beta band (13–25 Hz) rolandic activity, correlating to impaired motor function. However, clinically, patients without significant weakness, with small lesions far from sensorimotor cortex, exhibit bilateral decreased motor dexterity and slowed reaction times. We investigate whether these minor stroke patients also display abnormal beta band activity. Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data were collected from nine minor stroke patients (NIHSS < 4) without significant hemiparesis, at ~1 and ~6 months postinfarct, and eight age-similar controls. Rolandic relative beta power during matching tasks and resting state, and Beta Event Related (De)Synchronization (ERD/ERS) during button press responses were analyzed. Regardless of lesion location, patients had significantly reduced relative beta power and ERS compared to controls. Abnormalities persisted over visits, and were present in both ipsi- and contra-lesional hemispheres, consistent with bilateral impairments in motor dexterity and speed. Minor stroke patients without severe weakness display reduced rolandic beta band activity in both hemispheres, which may be linked to bilaterally impaired dexterity and processing speed, implicating global connectivity dysfunction affecting sensorimotor cortex independent of lesion location. Findings not only illustrate global network disruption after minor stroke, but suggest rolandic beta band activity may be a potential biomarker and treatment target, evenmore »for minor stroke patients with small lesions far from sensorimotor areas.« less
  2. Capers, Miriam (Ed.)
    Supraspinal signals play a significant role in compensatory responses to postural perturbations after spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI disrupts descending motor control signals as well as ascending somatosensory information to and from below the lesion. In intact animals, While cortical signals are not necessary for basic postural tasks, but neurons in the motor cortex have been shown to respond to periodic postural perturbations in intact animals. However, the role of the cortex in postural control after spinal cord injury in response to unexpected postural perturbations has not been studied. To better understand how spinal lesions impact cortical encoding of information about unexpected postural perturbations, the activity of single neurons in the rat hindlimb sensorimotor cortex (HLSMC) were recorded during unexpected tilts before and after a complete midthoracic spinal transection. In a subset of animals, limb ground reaction forces were collected as well. Results show that responses in the HLSMC were modulated with changes in tilt severity (i.e. tilt velocity). As initial velocity of the tilt increased, more information was conveyed by the HLSMC neurons about the perturbation due to increases in both the number of recruited neurons and the magnitude of their response. After SCI hindlimb ground reaction forces weremore »both attenuated and delayed, and the neural responses were delayed and less likely to respond to slower tilts. This resulted in a moderate decrease inan attenuation of the information conveyed by cortical neurons about the tilts, requiring more cells to convey the same amount of information as before the transection. Given that reorganization of the hindlimb sensorimotor cortex in response to therapy after complete mid-thoracic SCI is necessary for behavioral recovery, this sustained encoding of information after SCI could be a substrate for the reorganization that uses sensory information from above the lesion to control trunk muscles that permit weight-supported stepping and postural control.« less
  3. Abstract

    Although multisensory integration is crucial for sensorimotor function, it is unclear how visual and proprioceptive sensory cues are combined in the brain during motor behaviors. Here we characterized the effects of multisensory interactions on local field potential (LFP) activity obtained from the superior parietal lobule (SPL) as non-human primates performed a reaching task with either unimodal (proprioceptive) or bimodal (visual-proprioceptive) sensory feedback. Based on previous analyses of spiking activity, we hypothesized that evoked LFP responses would be tuned to arm location but would be suppressed on bimodal trials, relative to unimodal trials. We also expected to see a substantial number of recording sites with enhanced beta band spectral power for only one set of feedback conditions (e.g. unimodal or bimodal), as was previously observed for spiking activity. We found that evoked activity and beta band power were tuned to arm location at many individual sites, though this tuning often differed between unimodal and bimodal trials. Across the population, both evoked and beta activity were consistent with feedback-dependent tuning to arm location, while beta band activity also showed evidence of response suppression on bimodal trials. The results suggest that multisensory interactions can alter the tuning and gain of arm position-relatedmore »LFP activity in the SPL.

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  4. Abstract

    The mechanism of action of deep brain stimulation (DBS) to the basal ganglia for Parkinson’s disease remains unclear. Studies have shown that DBS decreases pathological beta hypersynchrony between the basal ganglia and motor cortex. However, little is known about DBS’s effects on long range corticocortical synchronization. Here, we use machine learning combined with graph theory to compare resting-state cortical connectivity between the off and on-stimulation states and to healthy controls. We found that turning DBS on increased high beta and gamma band synchrony (26 to 50 Hz) in a cortical circuit spanning the motor, occipitoparietal, middle temporal, and prefrontal cortices. The synchrony in this network was greater in DBS on relative to both DBS off and controls, with no significant difference between DBS off and controls. Turning DBS on also increased network efficiency and strength and subnetwork modularity relative to both DBS off and controls in the beta and gamma band. Thus, unlike DBS’s subcortical normalization of pathological basal ganglia activity, it introduces greater synchrony relative to healthy controls in cortical circuitry that includes both motor and non-motor systems. This increased high beta/gamma synchronization may reflect compensatory mechanisms related to DBS’s clinical benefits, as well as undesirable non-motor sidemore »effects.

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  5. Manto, Mario (Ed.)
    Background Cerebellar electrical stimulation has shown promise in improving motor recovery post-stroke in both rodent and human studies. Past studies have used motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to evaluate how cerebellar stimulation modulates ongoing activity in the cortex, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we used invasive electrophysiological recordings from the intact and stroke-injured rodent primary motor cortex (M1) to assess how epidural cerebellar stimulation modulates neural dynamics at the level of single neurons as well as at the level of mesoscale dynamics. Methods We recorded single unit spiking and local field potentials (LFPs) in both the intact and acutely stroke-injured M1 contralateral to the stimulated cerebellum in adult Long-Evans rats under anesthesia. We analyzed changes in the firing rates of single units, the extent of synchronous spiking and power spectral density (PSD) changes in LFPs during and post-stimulation. Results Our results show that post-stimulation, the firing rates of a majority of M1 neurons changed significantly with respect to their baseline rates. These firing rate changes were diverse in character, as the firing rate of some neurons increased while others decreased. Additionally, these changes started to set in during stimulation. Furthermore, cross-correlation analysis showed a significant increase in coincidentmore »firing amongst neuronal pairs. Interestingly, this increase in synchrony was unrelated to the direction of firing rate change. We also found that neuronal ensembles derived through principal component analysis were more active post-stimulation. Lastly, these changes occurred without a significant change in the overall spectral power of LFPs post-stimulation. Conclusions Our results show that cerebellar stimulation caused significant, long-lasting changes in the activity patterns of M1 neurons by altering firing rates, boosting neural synchrony and increasing neuronal assemblies’ activation strength. Our study provides evidence that cerebellar stimulation can directly modulate cortical dynamics. Since these results are present in the perilesional cortex, our data might also help explain the facilitatory effects of cerebellar stimulation post-stroke.« less