skip to main content

Title: A Population of Luminous Globular Clusters and Stripped Nuclei with Elevated Mass to Light Ratios around NGC 5128*
Abstract The dense central regions of tidally disrupted galaxies can survive as ultracompact dwarfs (UCDs) that hide among the luminous globular clusters (GCs) in the halo of massive galaxies. An exciting confirmation of this model is the detection of overmassive black holes in the centers of some UCDs, which also lead to elevated dynamical mass-to-light ratios ( M / L dyn ). Here we present new high-resolution spectroscopic observations of 321 luminous GC candidates in the massive galaxy NGC 5128/Centaurus A. Using these data we confirm 27 new luminous GCs, and measure velocity dispersions for 57 luminous GCs (with g -band luminosities between 2.5 × 10 5 and 2.5 × 10 7 L ⊙ ), of which 48 are new measurements. Combining these data with size measurements from Gaia, we determine the M / L dyn for all 57 luminous GCs. We see a clear bimodality in the M / L dyn distribution, with a population of normal GCs with mean M / L dyn = 1.51 ± 0.31, and a second population of ∼20 GCs with elevated mean M / L dyn = 2.68 ± 0.22. We show that black holes with masses ∼4%–18% of the luminous GCs can more » explain the elevated mass-to-light ratios. Hence, it is plausible that the NGC 5128 sources with elevated M / L dyn are mostly stripped galaxy nuclei that contain massive central black holes, though future high spatial resolution observations are necessary to confirm this hypothesis for individual sources. We also present a detailed discussion of an extreme outlier, VHH81-01 , one of the largest and most massive GC in NGC 5128, making it an exceptionally strong candidate to be a tidally stripped nucleus. « less
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1815403 1813708
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this

    The Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 3201 is the first Galactic GC observed to host dynamically confirmed stellar-mass black holes (BHs), containing two confirmed and one candidate BH. This result indicates that GCs can retain BHs, which has important implications for GC evolution. NGC 3201 has been observed as part of the MAVERIC survey of Galactic GCs. We use these data to confirm that there is no radio or X-ray detection of the three BHs, and present the first radio and X-ray limits on these sources. These limits indicate that any accretion present is at an extremely low rate and may be extremely inefficient. In particular, for the system ACS ID #21859, by assuming the system is tidally locked and any accretion is through the capture of the companion’s winds, we constrain the radiative efficiency of any accretion to ≲ 1.5 × 10−5. We also combine the radio and X-ray source catalogues from the MAVERIC survey with the existing MUSE spectroscopic surveys and the HUGS catalogue of NGC 3201 to provide a catalogue of 42 multiwavelength sources in this cluster. We identify a new red straggler source with X-ray emission, and investigate the multiwavelength properties of the sub-subgiant population in the cluster.

  2. ABSTRACT Globular clusters (GCs) are often used to estimate the dark matter content of galaxies, especially dwarf galaxies, where other kinematic tracers are lacking. These estimates typically assume spherical symmetry and dynamical equilibrium, assumptions that may not hold for the sparse GC population of dwarfs in galaxy clusters. We use a catalogue of GCs tagged on to the Illustris simulation to study the accuracy of GC-based mass estimates. We focus on galaxies in the stellar mass range 108–1011.8 M⊙ identified in nine simulated Virgo-like clusters. Our results indicate that mass estimates are, on average, accurate in systems with GC numbers NGC ≥ 10 and where the uncertainty of individual GC line-of-sight velocities is smaller than the inferred velocity dispersion, σGC. In cases where NGC ≤ 10, however, biases may result, depending on how σGC is computed. We provide calibrations that may help alleviate these biases in methods widely used in the literature. As an application, we find a number of dwarfs with $M_{*} \sim 10^{8.5}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$ – comparable with the ultra-diffuse galaxy NGC 1052-DF2 (DF2), notable for the low σGC of its 10 GCs – that have $\sigma _{\rm GC} \sim 7\!-\!15\, {\rm km \,s}^{-1}$. These DF2 analogues correspond tomore »relatively massive systems at their infall time (M200 ∼ 1–3 × 1011 M⊙), which have retained only 3–17 GCs and have been stripped of more than 95 per cent of their dark matter. Our results suggest that extreme tidal mass loss in otherwise normal dwarf galaxies may be a possible formation channel for ultra-diffuse objects such as DF2.« less
  3. ABSTRACT We present an analysis of Hubble Space Telescope observations of globular clusters (GCs) in six ultradiffuse galaxies (UDGs) in the Coma cluster, a sample that represents UDGs with large effective radii (Re), and use the results to evaluate competing formation models. We eliminate two significant sources of systematic uncertainty in the determination of the number of GCs, NGC by using sufficiently deep observations that (i) reach the turnover of the globular cluster luminosity function (GCLF) and (ii) provide a sufficient number of GCs with which to measure the GC number radial distribution. We find that NGC for these galaxies is on average ∼ 20, which implies an average total mass, Mtotal, ∼ 1011 M⊙ when applying the relation between NGC and Mtotal. This value of NGC lies at the upper end of the range observed for dwarf galaxies of the same stellar mass and is roughly a factor of two larger than the mean. The GCLF, radial profile, and average colour are more consistent with those observed for dwarf galaxies than with those observed for the more massive (L*) galaxies, while both the radial and azimuthal GC distributions closely follow those of the stars in the host galaxy. Finally, we discuss whymore »our observations, specifically the GC number and GC distribution around these six UDGs, pose challenges for several of the currently favoured UDG formation models.« less
  4. Abstract

    The nearby, luminous infrared galaxy NGC 7469 hosts a Seyfert nucleus with a circumnuclear star-forming ring and is thus the ideal local laboratory for investigating the starburst–AGN (active galactic nucleus) connection in detail. We present integral-field observations of the central 1.3 kpc region in NGC 7469 obtained with the JWST Mid-InfraRed Instrument. Molecular and ionized gas distributions and kinematics at a resolution of ∼100 pc over the 4.9–7.6μm region are examined to study the gas dynamics influenced by the central AGN. The low-ionization [Feii]λ5.34μm and [Arii]λ6.99μm lines are bright on the nucleus and in the starburst ring, as opposed to H2S(5)λ6.91μm, which is strongly peaked at the center and surrounding ISM. The high-ionization [Mgv] line is resolved and shows a broad, blueshifted component associated with the outflow. It has a nearly face-on geometry that is strongly peaked on the nucleus, where it reaches a maximum velocity of −650 km s−1, and extends about 400 pc to the east. Regions of enhanced velocity dispersion in H2and [Feii] ∼ 180 pc from the AGN that also show highL(H2)/L(PAH) andL([Feii])/L(Pfα) ratios to the W and N of the nucleus pinpoint regions where the ionized outflow is depositing energy, via shocks, into themore »dense interstellar medium between the nucleus and the starburst ring. These resolved mid-infrared observations of the nuclear gas dynamics demonstrate the power of JWST and its high-sensitivity integral-field spectroscopic capability to resolve feedback processes around supermassive black holes in the dusty cores of nearby luminous infrared galaxies.

    « less
  5. Abstract

    We present ALMA [C ii] line and far-infrared (FIR) continuum observations of three $z \gt 6$ low-luminosity quasars ($M_{\rm 1450} \gt -25$ mag) discovered by our Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey. The [C ii] line was detected in all three targets with luminosities of $(2.4\mbox{--}9.5) \times 10^8\, L_{\odot }$, about one order of magnitude smaller than optically luminous ($M_{\rm 1450} \lesssim -25$ mag) quasars. The FIR continuum luminosities range from $\lt 9 \times 10^{10}\, L_{\odot }$ (3 $\sigma$ limit) to ${\sim } 2 \times 10^{12}\, L_{\odot }$, indicating a wide range in star formation rates in these galaxies. Most of the HSC quasars studied thus far show [C ii]/ FIR luminosity ratios similar to local star-forming galaxies. Using the [C ii]-based dynamical mass ($M_{\rm dyn}$) as a surrogate for bulge stellar mass ($M_{\rm\, bulge}$), we find that a significant fraction of low-luminosity quasars are located on or even below the local $M_{\rm\, BH}$–$M_{\rm\, bulge}$ relation, particularly at the massive end of the galaxy mass distribution. In contrast, previous studies of optically luminous quasars have found that black holes are overmassive relative to the local relation. Given the low luminosities of our targets, we are exploring the nature of the early co-evolution of supermassive black holes andmore »their hosts in a less biased way. Almost all of the quasars presented in this work are growing their black hole mass at a much higher pace at $z \sim 6$ than the parallel growth model, in which supermassive black holes and their hosts grow simultaneously to match the local $M_{\rm\, BH}$–$M_{\rm\, bulge}$ relation at all redshifts. As the low-luminosity quasars appear to realize the local co-evolutionary relation even at $z \sim 6$, they should have experienced vigorous starbursts prior to the currently observed quasar phase to catch up with the relation.

    « less