Gaia 20eae: A Newly Discovered Episodically Accreting Young Star
Abstract The Gaia Alert System issued an alert on 2020 August 28, on Gaia 20eae when its light curve showed a ∼4.25 magnitude outburst. We present multiwavelength photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations of this source since 2020 August and identify it as the newest member of the FUor/EXor family of sources. We find that the present brightening of Gaia 20eae is not due to the dust-clearing event but due to an intrinsic change in the spectral energy distribution. The light curve of Gaia 20eae shows a transition stage during which most of its brightness (∼3.4 mag) has occurred on a short timescale of 34 days with a rise rate of 3 mag/month. Gaia 20eae has now started to decay at a rate of 0.3 mag/month. We have detected a strong P Cygni profile in H α , which indicates the presence of winds originating from regions close to the accretion. We find signatures of very strong and turbulent outflow and accretion in Gaia 20eae during this outburst phase. We have also detected a redshifted absorption component in all of the Ca ii IR triplet lines consistent with a signature of hot infalling gas in the magnetospheric accretion funnel. This enables more »
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Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10344422
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Volume:
926
Issue:
1
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
68
ISSN:
0004-637X
1. ABSTRACT We present the results of a multiwavelength follow-up campaign for the luminous nuclear transient Gaia16aax, which was first identified in 2016 January. The transient is spatially consistent with the nucleus of an active galaxy at z = 0.25, hosting a black hole of mass ${\sim }6\times 10^8\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$. The nucleus brightened by more than 1 mag in the Gaia G band over a time-scale of less than 1 yr, before fading back to its pre-outburst state over the following 3 yr. The optical spectra of the source show broad Balmer lines similar to the ones present in a pre-outburst spectrum. During the outburst, the H α and H β emission lines develop a secondary peak. We also report on the discovery of two transients with similar light-curve evolution and spectra: Gaia16aka and Gaia16ajq. We consider possible scenarios to explain the observed outbursts. We exclude that the transient event could be caused by a microlensing event, variable dust absorption or a tidal encounter between a neutron star and a stellar mass black hole in the accretion disc. We consider variability in the accretion flow in the inner part of the disc, or a tidal disruption event of a star ${\ge } 1 \, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$ bymore »
We followed up the massive young stellar object S255-NIRS3 (= S255-IRS1b) during its recent accretion outburst event in the $K_{\rm s}$ band with Kanata/HONIR for four years after its burst and obtained a long-term light curve. This is the most complete near-infrared light curve of the S255-NIRS3 burst event that has ever been presented. The light curve showed a steep increase reaching a peak flux that was 3.4 mag brighter than the quiescent phase and then a relatively moderate year-scale fading until the last observation, similar to that of the accretion burst events such as EXors found in lower-mass young stellar objects. The behavior of the $K_{\rm s}$-band light curve is similar to that observed in 6.7 GHz class II methanol maser emission, with a sudden increase followed by moderate year-scale fading. However, the maser emission peaks appear 30–50 d earlier than that of the $K_{\rm s}$ band emission. The similarities confirmed that the origins of the maser emission and the $K_{\rm s}$-band continuum emission are common, as previously shown from other infrared and radio observations by Stecklum et al. (2016, Astronomer’s Telegram, 8732), Caratti o Garatti et al. (2017b, Nature Phys., 13, 276), and Moscadelli et al. (2017, A&A, 600, L8). However, the differences inmore »