Characterizing Extreme Emission-line Galaxies. I. A Four-zone Ionization Model for Very High-ionization Emission*
Abstract Stellar population models produce radiation fields that ionize oxygen up to O +2 , defining the limit of standard H ii region models (<54.9 eV). Yet, some extreme emission-line galaxies, or EELGs, have surprisingly strong emission originating from much higher ionization potentials. We present UV HST/COS and optical LBT/MODS spectra of two nearby EELGs that have very high-ionization emission lines (e.g., He ii λλ 1640,4686 C iv λλ 1548,1550, [Fe v ] λ 4227, [Ar iv ] λλ 4711,4740). We define a four-zone ionization model that is augmented by a very high-ionization zone, as characterized by He +2 (>54.4 eV). The four-zone model has little to no effect on the measured total nebular abundances, but does change the interpretation of other EELG properties: we measure steeper central ionization gradients; higher volume-averaged ionization parameters; and higher central T e , n e , and log U values. Traditional three-zone estimates of the ionization parameter can underestimate the average log U by up to 0.5 dex. Additionally, we find a model-independent dichotomy in the abundance patterns, where the α /H abundances are consistent but N/H, C/H, and Fe/H are relatively deficient, suggesting these EELGs are α /Fe-enriched by more than three more »
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Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10345936
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Volume:
922
Issue:
2
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
170
ISSN:
0004-637X
ABSTRACT Outflows from supermassive black holes (SMBHs) play an important role in the co-evolution of themselves, their host galaxies, and the larger scale environments. Such outflows are often characterized by emission and absorption lines in various bands and in a wide velocity range blueshifted from the systematic redshift of the host quasar. In this paper, we report a strong broad line region (BLR) outflow from the z ≈ 4.7 quasar BR 1202-0725 based on the high-resolution optical spectrum taken with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph installed on the 6.5 m Magellan/Clay telescope, obtained from the ‘Probing the He ii re-Ionization ERa via Absorbing C iv Historical Yield’ (HIERACHY) project. This rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectrum is characterized by a few significantly blueshifted broad emission lines from high ions; the most significant one is the C iv line at a velocity of $\sim -6500$ km s−1 relative to the H α emission line, which is among the highest velocity BLR outflows in observed quasars at z > 4. The measured properties of UV emission lines from different ions, except for O i and Ly α, also follow a clear trend that higher ions tend to be broader and outflow at higher average velocities. There are multiple C iv and Si iv absorbing components identifiedmore »
4. Abstract We present a joint analysis of rest-UV and rest-optical spectra obtained using Keck/LRIS and Keck/MOSFIRE for a sample of 62 star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 2.3. We divide our sample into two bins based on their location in the [OIII]5007/Hβ vs. [NII]6584/Hα BPT diagram, and perform the first differential study of the rest-UV properties of massive ionizing stars as a function of rest-optical emission-line ratios. Fitting BPASS stellar population synthesis models, including nebular continuum emission, to our rest-UV composite spectra, we find that high-redshift galaxies offset towards higher [OIII]λ5007/Hβ and [NII]λ6584/Hα have younger ages ($\log (\textrm {~Age/yr})=7.20^{+0.57}_{-0.20}$) and lower stellar metallicities ($Z_*=0.0010^{+0.0011}_{-0.0003}$) resulting in a harder ionizing spectrum, compared to the galaxies in our sample that lie on the local BPT star-forming sequence ($\log (\textrm {Age/yr})=8.57^{+0.88}_{-0.84}$, $Z_*=0.0019^{+0.0006}_{-0.0006}$). Additionally, we find that the offset galaxies have an ionization parameter of $\log (U)=-3.04^{+0.06}_{-0.11}$ and nebular metallicity of ($12+\log (\textrm {~O/H})=8.40^{+0.06}_{-0.07}$), and the non-offset galaxies have an ionization parameter of $\log (U)=-3.11^{+0.08}_{-0.08}$ and nebular metallicity of $12+\log (\textrm {~O/H})=8.30^{+0.05}_{-0.06}$. The stellar and nebular metallicities derived for our sample imply that the galaxies offset from the local BPT relation are more α-enhanced ($7.28^{+2.52}_{-2.82}\textrm {~O/Fe}_{\odot }$) compared to those consistent with the local sequencemore »