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This content will become publicly available on December 1, 2023

Title: Gate reflectometry of single-electron box arrays using calibrated low temperature matching networks
Abstract Sensitive dispersive readouts of single-electron devices (“gate reflectometry”) rely on one-port radio-frequency (RF) reflectometry to read out the state of the sensor. A standard practice in reflectometry measurements is to design an impedance transformer to match the impedance of the load to the characteristic impedance of the transmission line and thus obtain the best sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. This is particularly important for measuring large impedances, typical for dispersive readouts of single-electron devices because even a small mismatch will cause a strong signal degradation. When performing RF measurements, a calibration and error correction of the measurement apparatus must be performed in order to remove errors caused by unavoidable non-idealities of the measurement system. Lack of calibration makes optimizing a matching network difficult and ambiguous, and it also prevents a direct quantitative comparison between measurements taken of different devices or on different systems. We propose and demonstrate a simple straightforward method to design and optimize a pi matching network for readouts of devices with large impedance, $$Z \ge 1\hbox {M}\Omega$$ Z ≥ 1 M Ω . It is based on a single low temperature calibrated measurement of an unadjusted network composed of a single L-section followed by a simple calculation more » to determine a value of the “balancing” capacitor needed to achieve matching conditions for a pi network. We demonstrate that the proposed calibration/error correction technique can be directly applied at low temperature using inexpensive calibration standards. Using proper modeling of the matching networks adjusted for low temperature operation the measurement system can be easily optimized to achieve the best conditions for energy transfer and targeted bandwidth, and can be used for quantitative measurements of the device impedance. In this work we use gate reflectometry to readout the signal generated by arrays of parallel-connected Al-AlOx single-electron boxes. Such arrays can be used as a fast nanoscale voltage sensor for scanning probe applications. We perform measurements of sensitivity and bandwidth for various settings of the matching network connected to arrays and obtain strong agreement with the simulations. « less
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Scientific Reports
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National Science Foundation
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