- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Chemical Science
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 14039 to 14049
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
The electronically excited singlet states of nitroaromatic compounds are often presumed to be essentially non-fluorescent. Nonetheless, a growing number of reports in the literature have demonstrated that certain structural types of nitroaromatics can indeed fluoresce, and often quite efficiently. Consideration of the mechanisms responsible for the typical fast or ultrafast non-radiative deactivation of the excited singlet states of nitroaromatics points to several general principles for their design that combine the strong electron-withdrawing properties of the nitro group with reasonable fluorescence quantum yields. An overview of published examples of fluorescent nitroaromatics emphasizes these concepts in the context of the importance of chromophore architecture and conformation and the defining roles of excited state charge transfer and solvent polarity in modulating the non-radiative decay channels that compete with fluorescence. Overcoming the stigma that nitroaromatics are intrinsically destined to be non-fluorescent thus paves the way for incorporating the strongly electron-withdrawing nitro group into the existing toolbox for the development of new nitro-substituted fluorophores and chromophores tuned to specific applications.
Electron-deficient π-conjugated functional dyes lie at the heart of organic optoelectronics. Adding nitro groups to aromatic compounds usually quenches their fluorescence via inter-system crossing (ISC) or internal conversion (IC). While strong electronic coupling of the nitro groups with the dyes ensures the benefits from these electron-withdrawing substituents, it also leads to fluorescence quenching. Here, we demonstrate how such electronic coupling affects the photophysics of acceptor–donor–acceptor fluorescent dyes, with nitrophenyl acceptors and a pyrrolo[3,2-
b]pyrrole donor. The position of the nitro groups and the donor-acceptor distance strongly affect the fluorescence properties of the bis-nitrotetraphenylpyrrolopyrroles. Concurrently, increasing solvent polarity quenches the emission that recovers upon solidifying the media. Intramolecular charge transfer (CT) and molecular dynamics, therefore, govern the fluorescence of these nitro-aromatics. While balanced donor-acceptor coupling ensures fast radiative deactivation and slow ISC essential for large fluorescence quantum yields, vibronic borrowing accounts for medium dependent IC via back CT. These mechanistic paradigms set important design principles for molecular photonics and electronics.
A two-step route to strongly absorbing and efficiently orange to deep red fluorescent, doubly B/N-doped, ladder-type pyrrolo[3,2- b ]pyrroles has been developed. We synthesize and study a series of derivatives of these four-coordinate boron-containing, nominally quadrupolar materials, which mostly exhibit one-photon absorption in the 500–600 nm range with the peak molar extinction coefficients reaching 150 000, and emission in the 520–670 nm range with the fluorescence quantum yields reaching 0.90. Within the family of these ultrastable dyes even small structural changes lead to significant variations of the photophysical properties, in some cases attributed to reversal of energy ordering of alternate-parity excited electronic states. Effective preservation of ground-state inversion symmetry was evidenced by very weak two-photon absorption (2PA) at excitation wavelengths corresponding to the lowest-energy, strongly one-photon allowed purely electronic transition. π-Expanded derivatives and those possessing electron-donating groups showed the most red-shifted absorption- and emission spectra, while displaying remarkably high peak 2PA cross-section ( σ 2PA ) values reaching ∼2400 GM at around 760 nm, corresponding to a two-photon allowed higher-energy excited state. At the same time, derivatives lacking π-expansion were found to have a relatively weak 2PA peak centered at ca. 800–900 nm with the maximum σ 2PA ∼50–250 GM. Ourmore »
Vibronic spectroscopy of methyl anthranilate and its water complex: hydrogen atom dislocation in the excited stateLaser-induced fluorescence (LIF) excitation, dispersed fluorescence (DFL), UV–UV-hole burning, and UV-depletion spectra have been collected on methyl anthranilate (MA, methyl 2-aminobenzoate) and its water-containing complex (MA–H 2 O), under jet-cooled conditions in the gas phase. As a close structural analog of a sunscreen agent, MA has a strong absorption due to the S 0 –S 1 transition that begins in the UV-A region, with the electronic origin at 28 852 cm −1 (346.6 nm). Unlike most sunscreens that have fast non-radiative pathways back to the ground state, MA fluoresces efficiently, with an excited state lifetime of 27 ns. Relative to methyl benzoate, inter-system crossing to the triplet manifold is shut off in MA by the strong intramolecular NH⋯OC H-bond, which shifts the 3 nπ* state well above the 1 ππ* S 1 state. Single vibronic level DFL spectra are used to obtain a near-complete assignment of the vibronic structure in the excited state. Much of the vibrational structure in the excitation spectrum is Franck–Condon activity due to three in-plane vibrations that modulate the distance between the NH 2 and CO 2 Me groups, ν 33 (421 cm −1 ), ν 34 (366 cm −1 ), and ν 36 (179 cm −1more »
Electronic relaxation in organic chromophores often proceeds via states not directly accessible by photoexcitation. We report on the photoinduced dynamics of pyrazine that involves such states, excited by a 267 nm laser and probed with X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy in a table-top setup. In addition to the previously characterized1B2u(ππ*) (S2) and1B3u(nπ*) (S1) states, the participation of the optically dark1Au(nπ*) state is assigned by a combination of experimental X-ray core-to-valence spectroscopy, electronic structure calculations, nonadiabatic dynamics simulations, and X-ray spectral computations. Despite1Au(nπ*) and1B3u(nπ*) states having similar energies at relaxed geometry, their X-ray absorption spectra differ largely in transition energy and oscillator strength. The1Au(nπ*) state is populated in 200 ± 50 femtoseconds after electronic excitation and plays a key role in the relaxation of pyrazine to the ground state.