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Title: Can the Fe K-alpha Line Reliably Predict Supernova Remnant Progenitors?
Abstract The centroid energy of the Fe K α line has been used to identify the progenitors of supernova remnants (SNRs). These investigations generally considered the energy of the centroid derived from the spectrum of the entire remnant. Here we use XMM-Newton data to investigate the Fe K α centroid in 6 SNRs: 3C 397, N132D, W49B, DEM L71, 1E 0102.2-7219, and Kes 73. In Kes 73 and 1E 0102.2-7219, we fail to detect any Fe K α emission. We report a tentative first detection of Fe K α emission in SNR DEM L71 with a centroid energy consistent with its Type Ia designation. In the remaining remnants, the spatial and spectral sensitivity is sufficient to investigate spatial variations of the Fe K α centroid. We find in N132D and W49B that the centroids in different regions are consistent with those derived from the overall spectrum, although not necessarily with the remnant type identified via other means. However, in SNR 3C 397, we find statistically significant variation in the centroid of up to 100 eV, aligning with the variation in the density structure around the remnant. These variations span the intermediate space between centroid energies signifying core-collapse (CC) and Type more » Ia remnants. Shifting the dividing line downwards by 50 eV can place all the centroids in the CC region, but contradicts the remnant type obtained via other means. Our results show that caution must be used when employing the Fe K α centroid of the entire remnant as the sole diagnostic for typing a remnant. « less
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The Astrophysical Journal
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Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) [8]. The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices. [1] E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991. [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [2] M. Feiginov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 99, 233506, 2011. [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [3] Y. Nishida et al., Nature Sci. Reports, 9, 18125, 2019. [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [4] P. Fakhimi, et al., 2019 DRC Conference Digest. [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018).« less