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Ionization-Gasdynamic Simulations of Wind-Blown Nebulae around Massive Stars
Using a code that employs a self-consistent method for computing the effects of photo-ionization on circumstellar gas dynamics, we model the formation of wind-driven nebulae around massive stars. We take into account changes in stellar properties and mass-loss over the star’s evolution. Our simulations show how various properties, such as the density and ionization fraction, change throughout the evolution of the star. The multi-dimensional simulations reveal the presence of strong ionization front instabilities in the main-sequence phase, similar to those seen in galactic ionization fronts. Hydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces lead to the formation of filaments and clumps that are continually being stripped off and mixed with the low density interior. Even though the winds start out as completely radial, the spherical symmetry is quickly destroyed, and the shocked wind region is manifestly asymmetrical. The simulations demonstrate that it is important to include the effects of the photoionizing photons from the star, and simulations that do not include this may fail to reproduce the observed density profile and ionization structure of wind-blown bubbles around massive stars.
Authors:
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10347648
Journal Name:
Galaxies
Volume:
10
Issue:
1
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
37
ISSN:
2075-4434
1. ABSTRACT We present and study a large suite of high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations, using the FIRE-2 treatment of mechanical and radiative feedback from massive stars, together with explicit treatment of magnetic fields, anisotropic conduction and viscosity (accounting for saturation and limitation by plasma instabilities at high β), and cosmic rays (CRs) injected in supernovae shocks (including anisotropic diffusion, streaming, adiabatic, hadronic and Coulomb losses). We survey systems from ultrafaint dwarf ($M_{\ast }\sim 10^{4}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$, $M_{\rm halo}\sim 10^{9}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$) through Milky Way/Local Group (MW/LG) masses, systematically vary uncertain CR parameters (e.g. the diffusion coefficient κ and streaming velocity), and study a broad ensemble of galaxy properties [masses, star formation (SF) histories, mass profiles, phase structure, morphologies, etc.]. We confirm previous conclusions that magnetic fields, conduction, and viscosity on resolved ($\gtrsim 1\,$ pc) scales have only small effects on bulk galaxy properties. CRs have relatively weak effects on all galaxy properties studied in dwarfs ($M_{\ast } \ll 10^{10}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$, $M_{\rm halo} \lesssim 10^{11}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$), or at high redshifts (z ≳ 1–2), for any physically reasonable parameters. However, at higher masses ($M_{\rm halo} \gtrsim 10^{11}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$) and z ≲ 1–2, CRs can suppress SF and stellar masses by factorsmore »
Using 3D radiation-hydrodynamical simulations, we study the effects of ionizing radiation on the formation of second-generation (SG) stars in globular clusters (GCs) with multiple stellar populations. In particular, we focus on massive ($10^7 \, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$) and young (40-Myr old) GCs. We consider stellar winds from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, ram pressure, gas accretion on to the cluster, and photo-ionization feedback of binary stars. We find that the stellar luminosity is strong enough to warm and ionize the intracluster medium, but it does not lead to a significant gas expulsion. The cluster can thus retain the ejecta of AGB stars and the accreted pristine gas. In addition, efficient cooling occurs in the central region of the cluster within $50\, \mathrm{Myr}$ from the formation of first generation stars, leading to the formation of SG stars. Our results indicate that the inclusion of photo-ionization does not suppress SG formation, but rather delays it by about $\sim 10\, \mathrm{Myr}$. The time delay depends on the density of the pristine gas, so that a denser medium exhibits a shorter delay in star formation. Moreover, photo-ionization leads to a modest decrease in the total SG mass, compared to a model without it.