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(Digital Presentation) Activating the Ion Transmission at the Cathode-Electrolyte Interface in All-Solid-State BatteriesAll-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) have garnered increasing attention due to the enhanced safety, featuring nonflammable solid electrolytes as well as the potential to achieve high energy density. 1 The advancement of the ASSBs is expected to provide, arguably, the most straightforward path towards practical, high-energy, and rechargeable batteries based on metallic anodes. 1 However, the sluggish ion transmission at the cathode-electrolyte (solid/solid) interface would result in the high resistant at the contact and limit the practical implementation of these all solid-state materials in real world batteries. 2 Several methods were suggested to enhance the kinetic condition of the ion migration between the cathode and the solid electrolyte (SE). 3 A composite strategy that mixes active materials and SEs for the cathode is a general way to decrease the ion transmission barrier at the cathode-electrolyte interface. 3 The active material concentration in the cathode is reduced as much as the SE portion increases by which the energy density of the ASSB is restricted. In addition, the mixing approach generally accompanies lattice mismatches between the cathode active materials and the SE, thus providing only limited improvements, which is imputed by random contacts between the cathode active materials and the SE during the mixingmore »
Unraveling the Stable Cathode Electrolyte Interface in all Solid‐State Thin‐Film Battery Operating at 5 V
Spinel‐type LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4(LNMO) is one of the most promising 5 V‐class cathode materials for Li‐ion batteries that can achieve high energy density and low production costs. However, in liquid electrolyte cells, the high voltage causes continuous cell degradation through the oxidative decomposition of carbonate‐based liquid electrolytes. In contrast, some solid‐state electrolytes have a wide electrochemical stability range and can withstand the required oxidative potential. In this work, a thin‐film battery consisting of an LNMO cathode with a solid lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) electrolyte is tested and their interface before and after cycling is characterized. With Li metal as the anode, this system can deliver stable performance for 600 cycles with an average Coulombic efficiency >99%. Neutron depth profiling indicates a slight overlithiated layer at the interface prior to cycling, a result that is consistent with the excess charge capacity measured during the first cycle. Cryogenic electron microscopy further reveals intimate contact between LNMO and LiPON without noticeable structure and chemical composition evolution after extended cycling, demonstrating the superior stability of LiPON against a high voltage cathode. Consequently, design guidelines are proposed for interface engineering that can accelerate the commercialization of a high voltage cell with solid or liquid electrolytes.
Enabling High-Rate Long-lifespan Lithium-Sulfur Batteries via Stereolithography Technique and Oxidative Chemical Vapor DepositionEnhancing battery energy storage capability and reducing the cost per average energy capacity is urgent to satisfy the increasing energy demand in modern society. The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is especially attractive because of its high theoretical specific energy (around 2600 W h kg-1), low cost, and low toxicity.1 Despite these advantages, the practical utilization of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries to date has been hindered by a series of obstacles, including low active material loading, shuttle effects, and sluggish sulfur conversion kinetics.2 The traditional 2D planer thick electrode is considered as a general approach to enhance the mass loading of the Li-S battery.3 However, the longer diffusion length of lithium ions, which resulted in high tortuosity in the compact stacking thick electrode, decreases the penetration ability of the electrolyte into the entire cathode.4 Although an effort to induce catalysts in the cathode was made to promote sulfur conversion kinetic conditions, catalysts based on transition metals suffered from the low electronic conductivity, and some elements (i.e.: Co, Mn) may even absorb and restrict polysulfides for further reaction. 5 To mitigate the issues listed above, herein we propose a novel sulfur cathode design strategy enabled by additive manufacturing and oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD).more »
Regulating Li‐Ion Transport through Ultrathin Molecular Membrane to Enable High‐Performance All‐Solid‐State–Battery
Solid‐state lithium metal batteries with garnet‐type electrolyte provide several advantages over conventional lithium‐ion batteries, especially for safety and energy density. However, a few grand challenges such as the propagation of Li dendrites, poor interfacial contact between the solid electrolyte and the electrodes, and formation of lithium carbonate during ambient exposure over the solid‐state electrolyte prevent the viability of such batteries. Herein, an ultrathin sub‐nanometer porous carbon nanomembrane (CNM) is employed on the surface of solid‐state electrolyte (SSE) that increases the adhesion of SSE with electrodes, prevents lithium carbonate formation over the surface, regulates the flow of Li‐ions, and blocks any electronic leakage. The sub‐nanometer scale pores in CNM allow rapid permeation of Li‐ions across the electrode–electrolyte interface without the presence of any liquid medium. Additionally, CNM suppresses the propagation of Li dendrites by over sevenfold up to a current density of 0.7 mA cm−2and enables the cycling of all‐solid‐state batteries at low stack pressure of 2 MPa using LiFePO4cathode and Li metal anode. The CNM provides chemical stability to the solid electrolyte for over 4 weeks of ambient exposure with less than a 4% increase in surface impurities.
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