- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Journal of Materials Chemistry A
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 26976 to 26988
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Sulfur Cathode Design Strategies Enabled by Stereolithography Technique and Oxidative Chemical Vapor DepositionIt is urgent to enhance battery energy storage capability to satisfy the increasing energy demand in modern society and reduce the average energy capacity cost. Among the candidates for next-generation high energy storage systems, the lithium-sulfur battery is especially attractive because of its high theoretical specific energy (around 2600 W h kg-1) and cost savings potential.1 In addition to the high theoretical capacity of sulfur cathode as high as 1,673 mA h g-1, sulfur is further appealing due to its abundance in nature, low cost, and low toxicity. Despite these advantages, the application of sulfur cathodes to date has been hindered by a number of obstacles, including low active material loading, low electronic conductivity, shuttle effects, and sluggish sulfur conversion kinetics.2 The traditional 2D planer thick electrode is considered as a general approach to enhance the mass loading of the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery.3 However, the longer diffusion length of lithium ions required in the thick electrode decrease the wettability of the electrolyte (into the entire cathode) and utilization ratio of active materials.4 Encapsulating active sulfur in carbon hosts is another common method to improve the performance of sulfur cathodes by enhancing the electronic conductivity and restricting shuttle effects. Nevertheless, itmore »
(Digital Presentation) Accelerating the Conversion Process of Polysulfides in High Mass Loading Sulfur Cathode for the Longevity Li-S BatteryConventional lithium-ion batteries are unable to meet the increasing demands for high-energy storage systems, because of their limited theoretical capacity. 1 In recent years, intensive attention has been paid to enhancing battery energy storage capability to satisfy the increasing energy demand in modern society and reduce the average energy capacity cost. Among the candidates for next generation high energy storage systems, the lithium sulfur battery is especially attractive because of its high theoretical specific energy (around 2600 W h kg-1) and potential cost reduction. In addition, sulfur is a cost effective and environmentally friendly material due to its abundance and low-toxicity. 2 Despite all of these advantages, the practical application of lithium sulfur batteries to date has been hindered by a series of obstacles, including low active material loading, poor cycle life, and sluggish sulfur conversion kinetics. 3 Achieving high mass loading cathode in the traditional 2D planar thick electrode has been challenged. The high distorsion of the traditional planar thick electrodes for ion/electron transfer leads to the limited utilization of active materials and high resistance, which eventually results in restricted energy density and accelerated electrode failure. 4 Furthermore, of the electrolyte to pores in the cathode and utilization ratiomore »
Enabling High-Rate Long-lifespan Lithium-Sulfur Batteries via Stereolithography Technique and Oxidative Chemical Vapor DepositionEnhancing battery energy storage capability and reducing the cost per average energy capacity is urgent to satisfy the increasing energy demand in modern society. The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is especially attractive because of its high theoretical specific energy (around 2600 W h kg-1), low cost, and low toxicity.1 Despite these advantages, the practical utilization of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries to date has been hindered by a series of obstacles, including low active material loading, shuttle effects, and sluggish sulfur conversion kinetics.2 The traditional 2D planer thick electrode is considered as a general approach to enhance the mass loading of the Li-S battery.3 However, the longer diffusion length of lithium ions, which resulted in high tortuosity in the compact stacking thick electrode, decreases the penetration ability of the electrolyte into the entire cathode.4 Although an effort to induce catalysts in the cathode was made to promote sulfur conversion kinetic conditions, catalysts based on transition metals suffered from the low electronic conductivity, and some elements (i.e.: Co, Mn) may even absorb and restrict polysulfides for further reaction. 5 To mitigate the issues listed above, herein we propose a novel sulfur cathode design strategy enabled by additive manufacturing and oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD).more »
Stabilization of gamma sulfur at room temperature to enable the use of carbonate electrolyte in Li-S batteries
This past decade has seen extensive research in lithium-sulfur batteries with exemplary works mitigating the notorious polysulfide shuttling. However, these works utilize ether electrolytes that are highly volatile severely hindering their practicality. Here, we stabilize a rare monoclinic γ-sulfur phase within carbon nanofibers that enables successful operation of Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) batteries in carbonate electrolyte for 4000 cycles. Carbonates are known to adversely react with the intermediate polysulfides and shut down Li-S batteries in first discharge. Through electrochemical characterization and
post-mortemspectroscopy/ microscopy studies on cycled cells, we demonstrate an altered redox mechanism in our cells that reversibly converts monoclinic sulfur to Li2S without the formation of intermediate polysulfides for the entire range of 4000 cycles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the synthesis of stable γ-sulfur and its application in Li-S batteries. We hope that this striking discovery of solid-to-solid reaction will trigger new fundamental and applied research in carbonate electrolyte Li-S batteries.
Stable Lithium Sulfur Battery Based on In Situ Electrocatalytically Formed Li 2 S on Metallic MoS 2 –Carbon Cloth SupportA stable lean‐electrolyte operating lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery based on a cathode of Li2S in situ electrocatalytically deposited from L2S8 catholyte onto a support of metallic molybdenum disulfide (1T‐MoS2) on carbon cloth (CC) is created. The 1T‐MoS2 significantly accelerates the conversion Li2S8 catholyte to Li2S, chemically adsorbs lithium polysulfide (LiPSs) from solution, and suppresses crossover of the LiPSs to the anode. These experimental findings are explained by density functional theory calculations that show that 1T‐MoS2 gives rise to strong adsorption of polysulfides on its surface and is electrocatalytic for the targeted reversible Li–S conversion reactions. The CC/1T‐MoS2 electrode in a Li–S battery delivers an initial capacity of 1238 mAh g−1, with a low capacity fade of only 0.051% per cycle over 500 cycles at 0.5 C. Even at a high sulfur loading (4.4 mg cm−2) and low electrolyte/S (E/S) ratio of 3.7 µL mg−1, the battery achieves an initial reversible capacity of 1176 mA h g−1 at 0.5 C, with 87% capacity retention after 160 cycles. The post 500 cycles Li metal opposing 1T‐MoS2 is substantially smoother than the Li opposing CC, with XPS supporting the role of 1T‐MoS2 in inhibiting LiPSs crossover.