skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on April 26, 2023

Title: The impact of galaxy selection on the splashback boundaries of galaxy clusters
ABSTRACT We explore how the splashback radius (Rsp) of galaxy clusters, measured using the number density of the subhalo population, changes based on various selection criteria using the IllustrisTNG cosmological galaxy formation simulation. We identify Rsp by extracting the steepest radial gradient in a stacked set of clusters in 0.5 dex wide mass bins, with our clusters having halo masses 1013 ≤ M200,mean/M⊙ ≤ 1015. We apply cuts in subhalo mass, galaxy stellar mass, i-band absolute magnitude, and specific star formation rate. We find that, generally, galaxies of increasing mass and luminosity trace smaller measured splashback radii relative to the intrinsic dark matter radius. We also show that quenched galaxies may be used to reliably reconstruct the dark matter splashback radius. This trend is likely due to changes in the galaxy population. Additionally, we are able to reconcile different observational predictions that Rsp based upon galaxy number counts and dark matter may either align or show significant offset (e.g. those using optically or SZ-selected clusters) through the selection functions that these studies employ. Finally, we demonstrate that changes in Rsp measured through number counts are not due to a simple change in galaxy abundance inside and outside of the cluster.
Authors:
; ; ;
Award ID(s):
2107724 1814053
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10350025
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume:
513
Issue:
1
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
835 to 852
ISSN:
0035-8711
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. ABSTRACT We present a detection of the splashback feature around galaxy clusters selected using the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) signal. Recent measurements of the splashback feature around optically selected galaxy clusters have found that the splashback radius, rsp, is smaller than predicted by N-body simulations. A possible explanation for this discrepancy is that rsp inferred from the observed radial distribution of galaxies is affected by selection effects related to the optical cluster-finding algorithms. We test this possibility by measuring the splashback feature in clusters selected via the SZ effect in data from the South Pole Telescope SZ survey and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter survey. The measurement is accomplished by correlating these cluster samples with galaxies detected in the Dark Energy Survey Year 3 data. The SZ observable used to select clusters in this analysis is expected to have a tighter correlation with halo mass and to be more immune to projection effects and aperture-induced biases, potentially ameliorating causes of systematic error for optically selected clusters. We find that the measured rsp for SZ-selected clusters is consistent with the expectations from simulations, although the small number of SZ-selected clusters makes a precise comparison difficult. In agreement with previous work, when using opticallymore »selected redMaPPer clusters with similar mass and redshift distributions, rsp is ∼2σ smaller than in the simulations. These results motivate detailed investigations of selection biases in optically selected cluster catalogues and exploration of the splashback feature around larger samples of SZ-selected clusters. Additionally, we investigate trends in the galaxy profile and splashback feature as a function of galaxy colour, finding that blue galaxies have profiles close to a power law with no discernible splashback feature, which is consistent with them being on their first infall into the cluster.« less
  2. ABSTRACT A self-similar spherical collapse model predicts a dark matter (DM) splashback and accretion shock in the outskirts of galaxy clusters while missing a key ingredient of structure formation – processes associated with mergers. To fill this gap, we perform simulations of merging self-similar clusters and investigate their DM and gas evolution in an idealized cosmological context. Our simulations show that the cluster rapidly contracts during the major merger and the splashback radius rsp decreases, approaching the virial radius rvir. While in the self-similar model rsp depends on a smooth mass accretion rate parameter Γs, our simulations show that in the presence of mergers, rsp responds to the changes in the total mass accretion rate Γvir, which accounts for both mergers and smooth accretion. The scatter of the Γvir − rsp/rvir relation indicates a generally low Γs ∼ 1 in clusters in cosmological simulations. In contrast to the DM, the hot gaseous atmospheres significantly expand by the merger-accelerated (MA-) shocks formed when the runaway merger shocks overtake the outer accretion shock. After a major merger, the MA-shock radius is larger than rsp by a factor of up to ∼1.7 for Γs ≲ 1 and is ∼rsp for Γs ≳ 3.more »This implies that (1) mergers could easily generate the MA-shock-splashback offset measured in cosmological simulations, and (2) the smooth mass accretion rate is small in regions away from filaments where MA-shocks reside. We further discuss the shapes of the DM haloes, various shocks, and contact discontinuities formed at different epochs of the merger, and the ram-pressure stripping in cluster outskirts.« less
  3. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT We present measurements of the radial profiles of the mass and galaxy number density around Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ)-selected clusters using both weak lensing and galaxy counts. The clusters are selected from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Data Release 5 and the galaxies from the Dark Energy Survey Year 3 data set. With signal-to-noise ratio of 62 (45) for galaxy (weak lensing) profiles over scales of about 0.2–20 h−1 Mpc, these are the highest precision measurements for SZ-selected clusters to date. Because SZ selection closely approximates mass selection, these measurements enable several tests of theoretical models of the mass and light distribution around clusters. Our main findings are: (1) The splashback feature is detected at a consistent location in both the mass and galaxy profiles and its location is consistent with predictions of cold dark matter N-body simulations. (2) The full mass profile is also consistent with the simulations. (3) The shapes of the galaxy and lensing profiles are remarkably similar for our sample over the entire range of scales, from well inside the cluster halo to the quasilinear regime. We measure the dependence of the profile shapes on the galaxy sample, redshift, and cluster mass. We extend the Diemer & Kravtsov modelmore »for the cluster profiles to the linear regime using perturbation theory and show that it provides a good match to the measured profiles. We also compare the measured profiles to predictions of the standard halo model and simulations that include hydrodynamics. Applications of these results to cluster mass estimation, cosmology, and astrophysics are discussed.« less
  4. Abstract We measure the projected number density profiles of galaxies and the splashback feature in clusters selected by the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich effect from the Advanced Atacama Cosmology Telescope (AdvACT) survey using galaxies observed by the Dark Energy Survey (DES). The splashback radius is consistent with CDM-only simulations and is located at 2.4 − 0.4 + 0.3 Mpc h − 1 . We split the galaxies on color and find significant differences in their profile shapes. Red and green-valley galaxies show a splashback-like minimum in their slope profile consistent with theory, while the bluest galaxies show a weak feature at a smaller radius. We develop a mapping of galaxies to subhalos in simulations and assign colors based on infall time onto their hosts. We find that the shift in location of the steepest slope and different profile shapes can be mapped to the average time of infall of galaxies of different colors. The steepest slope traces a discontinuity in the phase space of dark matter halos. By relating spatial profiles to infall time, we can use splashback as a clock to understand galaxy quenching. We find that red galaxies have on average been in clusters over 3.2 Gyr, green galaxies about 2.2more »Gyr, while blue galaxies have been accreted most recently and have not reached apocenter. Using the full radial profiles, we fit a simple quenching model and find that the onset of galaxy quenching occurs after a delay of about a gigayear and that galaxies quench rapidly thereafter with an exponential timescale of 0.6 Gyr.« less
  5. ABSTRACT The splashback radius, Rsp, is a physically motivated halo boundary that separates infalling and collapsed matter of haloes. We study Rsp in the hydrodynamic and dark matter-only IllustrisTNG simulations. The most commonly adopted signature of Rsp is the radius at which the radial density profiles are steepest. Therefore, we explicitly optimize our density profile fit to the profile slope and find that this leads to a $\sim 5{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ larger radius compared to other optimizations. We calculate Rsp for haloes with masses between 1013 and 15 M⊙ as a function of halo mass, accretion rate, and redshift. Rsp decreases with mass and with redshift for haloes of similar M200 m in agreement with previous work. We also find that Rsp/R200 m decreases with halo accretion rate. We apply our analysis to dark matter, gas, and satellite galaxies associated with haloes to investigate the observational potential of Rsp. The radius of steepest slope in gas profiles is consistently smaller than the value calculated from dark matter profiles. The steepest slope in galaxy profiles, which are often used in observations, tends to agree with dark matter profiles but is lower for less massive haloes. We compare Rsp in hydrodynamic and N-body dark matter-only simulationsmore »and do not find a significant difference caused by the addition of baryonic physics. Thus, results from dark matter-only simulations should be applicable to realistic haloes.« less