skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on August 23, 2023

Title: Genomic comparison of Planktothrix agardhii isolates from a Lake Erie embayment
Planktothrix agardhii is a filamentous cyanobacterial species that dominates harmful algal blooms in Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie and other freshwater basins across the world. P . agardhii isolates were obtained from early (June) blooms via single filament isolation; eight have been characterized from 2016, and 12 additional isolates have been characterized from 2018 for a total of 20 new cultures. These novel isolates were processed for genomic sequencing, where reads were used to generate scaffolds and contigs which were annotated with DIAMOND BLAST hit, Pfam, and GO. Analyses include whole genome alignment to generate phylogenetic trees and comparison of genetic rearrangements between isolates. Nitrogen acquisition and metabolism was compared across isolates. Secondary metabolite production was genetically explored including microcystins, two types of aeruginosin clusters, anabaenopeptins, cyanopeptolins, microviridins, and prenylagaramides. Two common and 4 unique CRISPR-cas islands were analyzed for similar sequences across all isolates and against the known Planktothri x-specific cyanophage, PaV-LD. Overall, the uniqueness of each genome from Planktothrix blooms sampled from the same site and at similar times belies the unexplored diversity of this genus.
Authors:
; ;
Editors:
Miller, Todd
Award ID(s):
1840715
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10350959
Journal Name:
PLOS ONE
Volume:
17
Issue:
8
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
e0273454
ISSN:
1932-6203
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Stams, Alfons J. (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Planktothrix agardhii dominates the cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom community in Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie (USA), from May through September. This filamentous cyanobacterium is host to a known obligate parasite, the chytrid Rhizophydium sp. During the 2018 bloom season, by utilizing dilution and single-filament isolation techniques, 7 chytrid and 12 P. agardhii strains were isolated from Sandusky Bay. These 7 chytrids and a selection of P. agardhii hosts were then characterized with respect to infection rates. Infections by the isolated chytrids were specific to Planktothrix planktonic species and were not found on other filamentous cyanobacterial taxa present in the bay ( Aphanizomenon sp. and Cuspidothrix sp.). Even among the potential P. agardhii host strains, individual chytrid isolates had different degrees of infectivity and showed preferences for different host isolates, suggesting possible ecological partitioning even within the same sample population. When mechanisms of chytrid pathogenesis were examined, the zoospores displayed a swarming pattern to attack and fracture the host filament and create new infection sites at the trichome termini. Infections by these parasitic chytrids also led to a release of intracellular microcystin toxins from the hosts. Additionally, infections were dependent on medium type, highlighting the importance of medium choice for experimentalmore »outcomes. Media in which chytrid swarming was observed closely matched the ionic strength of the natural environment. Understanding pathogenesis by fungal parasites will assist future efforts to determine environmental factors favoring loss mechanisms for Planktothrix agardhii -dominated blooms. IMPORTANCE Whereas many studies have focused on the factors contributing to the establishment and persistence of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cHABs), few studies have examined bloom pathogenesis. Chytrid fungi infect cyanobacteria and stimulate food web interactions through manipulation of previously hard-to-digest filaments and the release of nutrients to support heterotrophic microbes. Specifically, chytrids infective for filamentous Planktothrix agardhii exhibit a species-specific infection that fragments trichomes into shorter units that can be consumed more easily by grazers. Chytrid zoospores also serve as a high-quality food source for the lower food web. Understanding host-pathogen relationships and mechanisms of pathogenesis on cyanobacteria will be necessary to effectively model the ecology of cHABs.« less
  2. Raphidiopsis raciborskii and Planktothrix agardhii are filamentous, poten- tially toxin-producing cyanobacteria that form nuisance blooms in fresh waters. Here, we report high-quality metagenome-assembled genome sequences of R. raciborskii and P. agardhii collected from a bloom in Kissena Lake, New York.
  3. Stewart, Frank J. (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Raphidiopsis raciborskii and Planktothrix agardhii are filamentous, potentially toxin-producing cyanobacteria that form nuisance blooms in fresh waters. Here, we report high-quality metagenome-assembled genome sequences of R. raciborskii and P. agardhii collected from a bloom in Kissena Lake, New York.
  4. Beisner, Beatrix E (Ed.)
    Abstract Planktothrix agardhii dominates the cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom biomass in Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie (USA) from May until September. This filamentous cyanobacterium known parasites including the chytrid fungal species Rhizophydium sp. C02, which was previously isolated from this region. The purpose of our work has been to establish how parasitic interactions affect Planktothrix population dynamics during a bloom event. Samples analyzed from the 2015 to 2019 bloom seasons using quantitative PCR investigate the spatial and temporal prevalence of chytrid infections. Abiotic factors examined in lab include manipulating temperature (17–31°C), conductivity (0.226–1.225 mS/cm) and turbulence. Planktothrix-specific chytrids are present throughout the bloom period and are occasionally at high enough densities to exert parasitic pressure on their hosts. Temperatures above 27.1°C in lab can inhibit chytrid infection, indicating the presence of a possible upper thermal refuge for the host. Data suggest that chytrids can survive conductivity spikes in lab at levels three-fold above Sandusky Bay waters if given sufficient time (7–12 days), whereas increased turbulence in lab severely inhibits chytrid infections, perhaps due to disruption of chemical signaling. Overall, these data provide insights into the environmental conditions that inhibit chytrid infections during Planktothrix-dominated blooms in temperate waters.
  5. Pettigrew, Melinda M. (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Viral genome sequencing has guided our understanding of the spread and extent of genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes are usually sequenced from nasopharyngeal swabs of individual patients to track viral spread. Recently, RT-qPCR of municipal wastewater has been used to quantify the abundance of SARS-CoV-2 in several regions globally. However, metatranscriptomic sequencing of wastewater can be used to profile the viral genetic diversity across infected communities. Here, we sequenced RNA directly from sewage collected by municipal utility districts in the San Francisco Bay Area to generate complete and nearly complete SARS-CoV-2 genomes. The major consensus SARS-CoV-2 genotypes detected in the sewage were identical to clinical genomes from the region. Using a pipeline for single nucleotide variant calling in a metagenomic context, we characterized minor SARS-CoV-2 alleles in the wastewater and detected viral genotypes which were also found within clinical genomes throughout California. Observed wastewater variants were more similar to local California patient-derived genotypes than they were to those from other regions within the United States or globally. Additional variants detected in wastewater have only been identified in genomes from patients sampled outside California, indicating that wastewater sequencing can provide evidence for recent introductionsmore »of viral lineages before they are detected by local clinical sequencing. These results demonstrate that epidemiological surveillance through wastewater sequencing can aid in tracking exact viral strains in an epidemic context.« less