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Determination of Biomarkers for Diagnosis of Lung Cancer Using Cytoscape-based GO and Pathway AnalysisLung cancer is the second most common cancer in the world. The aim of this study is to identify biomarkers for lung cancer that can aid in its diagnosis and treatment. The gene expression profiles from GEO database were analyzed by GEO2R to identify Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) and further analyzed using Cytoscape. The data was divided into two categories: non-treatment and treatment groups. A total of 407 DEGs (254 upregulated and 153 downregulated) and 259 DEGs (124 upregulated and 135 downregulated) were isolated for non-treatment and treatment studies respectively. The significant Gene Ontologies and pathways enriched with DEGS were identified using Cytoscape apps, BiNGO and ReactomeFIPlugIn, respectively. Hub genes based on network parameters - Degree, Closeness and Betweenness - were isolated using CytoHubba. In conclusion, DEGs identified in this study may play an important role in early diagnosis or as biomarkers of lung cancer.
Supranutritional Maternal Organic Selenium Supplementation during Different Trimesters of Pregnancy Affects the Muscle Gene Transcriptome of Newborn Beef Calves in a Time-Dependent MannerSelenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for growth and immune function in beef cattle. We previously showed that supranutritional maternal organic Se supplementation during late pregnancy improves immune function in their newborn calves; however, the effects of maternal organic Se-supplementation on fetal programming during different pregnancy stages have yet to be elucidated. Herein, we investigated the effects of supranutritional maternal organic Se-supplementation in different pregnancy trimesters on their beef calf’s genome-wide transcriptome profiles. Within 12 to 48 h of birth, whole blood and Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle biopsies were collected from calves born to 40 crossbred Angus cows that received, except for the control group (CTR), Se-yeast boluses (105 mg of Se/wk) during the first (TR1), second (TR2), or third (TR3) trimester of gestation. Whole-blood Se concentrations of newborn calves increased from CTR, TR1, TR2 to TR3, whereas muscle Se concentrations of newborn calves were only increased in TR3 group. We identified 3048 unique differentially expressed genes (DEGs) across all group comparisons (FDR ≤ 0.05 and |log2FC| ≥ 1.5). Furthermore, we predicted 237 unique transcription factors that putatively regulate the DEGs. Independent of supplementation trimester, supranutritional maternal organic Se supplementation downregulated genes involved in adaptive immunity in all trimesters. Dependentmore »
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor mediates pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular remodeling induced by inhaled nicotineUse of electronic cigarettes is rapidly increasing among youth and young adults, but little is known regarding the long-term cardiopulmonary health impacts of these nicotine-containing devices. Our group has previously demonstrated that chronic, inhaled nicotine induces pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) remodeling in mice. These changes were associated with upregulated RV angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have been shown to reverse cigarette smoking-induced PH in rats. ACE inhibitor and ARB use in a large retrospective cohort of patients with PH is associated with improved survival. Here, we utilized losartan (an ARB specific for angiotensin II type 1 receptor) to further explore nicotine-induced PH. Male C57BL/6 mice received nicotine vapor for 12 h/day, and exposure was assessed using serum cotinine to achieve levels comparable to human smokers or electronic cigarette users. Mice were exposed to nicotine for 8 wk and a subset was treated with losartan via an osmotic minipump. Cardiac function was assessed using echocardiography and catheterization. Although nicotine exposure increased angiotensin II in the RV and lung, this finding was nonsignificant. Chronic, inhaled nicotine significantly increased RV systolic pressure and RV free wall thickness versus air control. These parameters were significantly lower in mice receiving bothmore »
Mmp12 Is Upregulated by in utero Second-Hand Smoke Exposures and Is a Key Factor Contributing to Aggravated Lung Responses in Adult Emphysema, Asthma, and Lung Cancer Mouse ModelsMatrix metalloproteinase-12 ( Mmp12 ) is upregulated by cigarette smoke (CS) and plays a critical role in extracellular matrix remodeling, a key mechanism involved in physiological repair processes, and in the pathogenesis of emphysema, asthma, and lung cancer. While cigarette smoking is associated with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and lung cancer, in utero exposures to CS and second-hand smoke (SHS) are associated with asthma development in the offspring. SHS is an indoor air pollutant that causes known adverse health effects; however, the mechanisms by which in utero SHS exposures predispose to adult lung diseases, including COPD, asthma, and lung cancer, are poorly understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that in utero SHS exposure aggravates adult-induced emphysema, asthma, and lung cancer. Methods: Pregnant BALB/c mice were exposed from gestational days 6–19 to either 3 or 10mg/m 3 of SHS or filtered air. At 10, 11, 16, or 17weeks of age, female offspring were treated with either saline for controls, elastase to induce emphysema, house-dust mite (HDM) to initiate asthma, or urethane to promote lung cancer. At sacrifice, specific disease-related lung responses including lung function, inflammation, gene, and protein expression were assessed. Results: In the elastase-inducedmore »
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Crohn’s disease is a lifelong disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Defining the cellular and transcriptional composition of the mucosa at different stages of disease progression is needed for personalized therapy in Crohn’s.
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We identified 3 cellular compartments with 9 epithelial, 1 stromal, and 5 immune cell subtypes. We observed differences in the cellular composition between control, treatment-naïve, and established groups, with the significant changes in the epithelial subtypes of the treatment-naïve patients, including microfold, tuft, goblet, enterocyte,s and BEST4+ cells. Surprisingly, fewer changes in the composition of the immune compartment were observed; however, gene expression in the epithelial and immune compartment was different between Crohn’s phenotypes, indicating changes inmore »
Our study identified cellular and transcriptional signatures associated with treatment-naïve Crohn’s disease that collectively point to dysfunction of the intestinal barrier with an increase in inflammatory cellular activity. Our analysis also highlights the heterogeneity among patients within the same disease phenotype, shining a new light on personalized treatment responses and strategies.