- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
‘Sleep-dependent’ memory consolidation? Brief periods of post-training rest and sleep provide an equivalent benefit for both declarative and procedural memorySleep following learning facilitates the consolidation of memories. This effect has often been attributed to sleep-specific factors, such as the presence of sleep spindles or slow waves in the electroencephalogram (EEG). However, recent studies suggest that simply resting quietly while awake could confer a similar memory benefit. In the current study, we examined the effects of sleep, quiet rest, and active wakefulness on the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. We hypothesized that sleep and eyes-closed quiet rest would both benefit memory compared with a period of active wakefulness. After completing a declarative and a procedural memory task, participants began a 30-min retention period with PSG (polysomnographic) monitoring, in which they either slept ( n = 24), quietly rested with their eyes closed ( n = 22), or completed a distractor task ( n = 29). Following the retention period, participants were again tested on their memory for the two learning tasks. As hypothesized, sleep and quiet rest both led to better performance on the declarative and procedural memory tasks than did the distractor task. Moreover, the performance advantages conferred by rest were indistinguishable from those of sleep. These data suggest that neurobiology specific to sleep might not be necessarymore »
Napping benefits long-term memory formation and is a tool many individuals use to improve daytime functioning. Despite its potential advantages, approximately 47% of people in the United States eschew napping. The goal of this study was to determine whether people who endorse napping at least once a week (nap+) show differences in nap outcomes, including nap-dependent memory consolidation, compared with people who rarely or never nap (nap−). Additionally, we tested whether four weeks of nap practice or restriction would change sleep and performance profiles. Using a perceptual learning task, we found that napping enhanced performance to a greater degree in nap+ compared with nap− individuals (at baseline). Additionally, performance change was associated with different electrophysiological sleep features in each group. In the nap+ group, spindle density was positively correlated with performance improvement, an effect specific to spindles in the hemisphere contralateral to the trained visual field. In the nap− group, slow oscillatory power (0.5–1 Hz) was correlated with performance. Surprisingly, no changes to performance or brain activity during sleep emerged after four weeks of nap practice or restriction. These results suggest that individual differences may impact the potential benefits of napping on performance and the ability to become a bettermore »
Timing between Cortical Slow Oscillations and Heart Rate Bursts during Sleep Predicts Temporal Processing Speed, but Not Offline ConsolidationCentral and autonomic nervous system activities are coupled during sleep. Cortical slow oscillations (SOs; <1 Hz) coincide with brief bursts in heart rate (HR), but the functional consequence of this coupling in cognition remains elusive. We measured SO–HR temporal coupling (i.e., the peak-to-peak interval between downstate of SO event and HR burst) during a daytime nap and asked whether this SO–HR timing measure was associated with temporal processing speed and learning on a texture discrimination task by testing participants before and after a nap. The coherence of SO–HR events during sleep strongly correlated with an individual's temporal processing speed in the morning and evening test sessions, but not with their change in performance after the nap (i.e., consolidation). We confirmed this result in two additional experimental visits and also discovered that this association was visit-specific, indicating a state (not trait) marker. Thus, we introduce a novel physiological index that may be a useful marker of state-dependent processing speed of an individual.
Mangun, G.R. ; Gazzaniga, M.S. (Ed.)The human ability to remember unique experiences from many years ago comes so naturally that we often take it for granted. It depends on three stages: (1) encoding, when new information is initially registered, (2) storage, when encoded information is held in the brain, and (3) retrieval, when stored information is used. Historically, cognitive neuroscience studies of memory have emphasized encoding and retrieval. Yet, the intervening stage may hold the most intrigue, and has become a major research focus in the years since the last edition of this book. Here we describe recent investigations of post-acquisition memory processing in relation to enduring storage. This evidence of memory processing belies the notion that memories stored in the brain are held in stasis, without changing. Various methods for influencing and monitoring brain activity have been applied to study offline memory processing. In particular, memories can be reactivated during sleep and during resting periods, with distinctive physiological correlates. These neural signals shed light on the contribution of hippocampal-neocortical interactions to memory consolidation. Overall, results converge on the notion that memory reactivation is a critical determinant of systems-level consolidation, and thus of future remembering, which in turn facilitates future planning and problem solving.
Ambiguous images elicit bistable perception, wherein periods of momentary perceptual stability are interrupted by sudden perceptual switches. When intermittently presented, ambiguous images trigger a perceptual memory trace in the intervening blank periods. Understanding the neural bases of perceptual stability and perceptual memory during bistable perception may hold clues for explaining the apparent stability of visual experience in the natural world, where ambiguous and fleeting images are prevalent. Motivated by recent work showing the involvement of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) in bistable perception, we conducted a transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) study with a double-blind, within-subject cross-over design to test a potential causal role of rIFG in these processes. Subjects viewed ambiguous images presented continuously or intermittently while under EEG recording. We did not find any significant tDCS effect on perceptual behavior. However, the fluctuations of oscillatory power in the alpha and beta bands predicted perceptual stability, with higher power corresponding to longer percept durations. In addition, higher alpha and beta power predicted enhanced perceptual memory during intermittent viewing. These results reveal a unified neurophysiological mechanism sustaining perceptual stability and perceptual memory when the visual system is faced with ambiguous input.