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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 6, 2023
  2. Abstract Replay is the reactivation of one or more neural patterns that are similar to the activation patterns experienced during past waking experiences. Replay was first observed in biological neural networks during sleep, and it is now thought to play a critical role in memory formation, retrieval, and consolidation. Replay-like mechanisms have been incorporated in deep artificial neural networks that learn over time to avoid catastrophic forgetting of previous knowledge. Replay algorithms have been successfully used in a wide range of deep learning methods within supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning paradigms. In this letter, we provide the first comprehensive comparison between replay in the mammalian brain and replay in artificial neural networks. We identify multiple aspects of biological replay that are missing in deep learning systems and hypothesize how they could be used to improve artificial neural networks.
  3. Abstract Study Objectives Synchronization of neural activity within local networks and between brain regions is a major contributor to rhythmic field potentials such as the EEG. On the other hand, dynamic changes in microstructure and activity are reflected in the EEG, for instance slow oscillation (SO) slope can reflect synaptic strength. SO-spindle coupling is a measure for neural communication. It was previously associated with memory consolidation, but also shown to reveal strong interindividual differences. In studies, weak electric current stimulation has modulated brain rhythms and memory retention. Here, we investigate whether SO-spindle coupling and SO slope during baseline sleep are associated with (predictive of) stimulation efficacy on retention performance. Methods Twenty-five healthy subjects participated in three experimental sessions. Sleep-associated memory consolidation was measured in two sessions, in one anodal transcranial direct current stimulation oscillating at subjects individual SO frequency (so-tDCS) was applied during nocturnal sleep. The third session was without a learning task (baseline sleep). The dependence on SO-spindle coupling and SO-slope during baseline sleep of so-tDCS efficacy on retention performance were investigated. Results Stimulation efficacy on overnight retention of declarative memories was associated with nesting of slow spindles to SO trough in deep nonrapid eye movement baseline sleep. Steepnessmore »and direction of SO slope in baseline sleep were features indicative for stimulation efficacy. Conclusions Findings underscore a functional relevance of activity during the SO up-to-down state transition for memory consolidation and provide support for distinct consolidation mechanisms for types of declarative memories.« less
  4. Abstract Sleep is one of the most ubiquitous but also complex animal behaviors. It is regulated at the global, systems level scale by circadian and homeostatic processes. Across the 24-h day, distribution of sleep/wake activity differs between species, with global sleep states characterized by defined patterns of brain electric activity and electromyography. Sleep patterns have been most intensely investigated in mammalian species. The present review begins with a brief overview on current understandings on the regulation of sleep, and its interaction with aging. An overview on age-related variations in the sleep states and associated electrophysiology and oscillatory events in humans as well as in the most common laboratory rodents follows. We present findings observed in different studies and meta-analyses, indicating links to putative physiological changes in the aged brain. Concepts requiring a more integrative view on the role of circadian and homeostatic sleep regulatory mechanisms to explain aging in sleep are emerging.
  5. Sleep can benefit memory consolidation. The characterization of brain regions underlying memory consolidation during sleep, as well as their temporal interplay, reflected by specific patterns of brain electric activity, is surfacing. Here, we provide an overview of recent concepts and results on the mechanisms of sleep-related memory consolidation. The latest studies strongly impacting future directions of research in this field are highlighted.
  6. Central and autonomic nervous system activities are coupled during sleep. Cortical slow oscillations (SOs; <1 Hz) coincide with brief bursts in heart rate (HR), but the functional consequence of this coupling in cognition remains elusive. We measured SO–HR temporal coupling (i.e., the peak-to-peak interval between downstate of SO event and HR burst) during a daytime nap and asked whether this SO–HR timing measure was associated with temporal processing speed and learning on a texture discrimination task by testing participants before and after a nap. The coherence of SO–HR events during sleep strongly correlated with an individual's temporal processing speed in the morning and evening test sessions, but not with their change in performance after the nap (i.e., consolidation). We confirmed this result in two additional experimental visits and also discovered that this association was visit-specific, indicating a state (not trait) marker. Thus, we introduce a novel physiological index that may be a useful marker of state-dependent processing speed of an individual.