skip to main content


The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Thursday, May 23 until 2:00 AM ET on Friday, May 24 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.

Title: Stormtime Energetics: Energy Transport Across the Magnetopause in a Global MHD Simulation
Coupling between the solar wind and magnetosphere can be expressed in terms of energy transfer through the separating boundary known as the magnetopause. Geospace simulation is performed using the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) of a multi-ICME impact event on February 18–20, 2014 in order to study the energy transfer through the magnetopause during storm conditions. The magnetopause boundary is identified using a modified plasma β and fully closed field line criteria to a downstream distance of −20 R e . Observations from Geotail, Themis, and Cluster are used as well as the Shue 1998 model to verify the simulation field data results and magnetopause boundary location. Once the boundary is identified, energy transfer is calculated in terms of total energy flux K , Poynting flux S , and hydrodynamic flux H . Surface motion effects are considered and the regional distribution of energy transfer on the magnetopause surface is explored in terms of dayside X > 0 , flank X < 0 , and tail cross section X = X m i n regions. It is found that total integrated energy flux over the boundary is nearly balanced between injection and escape, and flank contributions dominate the Poynting flux injection. Poynting flux dominates net energy input, while hydrodynamic flux dominates energy output. Surface fluctuations contribute significantly to net energy transfer and comparison with the Shue model reveals varying levels of cylindrical asymmetry in the magnetopause flank throughout the event. Finally existing energy coupling proxies such as the Akasofu ϵ parameter and Newell coupling function are compared with the energy transfer results.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Solar wind—magnetosphere coupling drives magnetospheric dynamic phenomena by enabling energy exchange between magnetospheric and solar wind plasmas. In this study, we examine two‐dimensional noon‐midnight meridional plane simulation runs of the global hybrid‐Vlasov code Vlasiator with southward interplanetary magnetic field driving. We compute the energy flux, which consists of the Poynting flux and hydrodynamic energy flux components, through the Earth's magnetopause during flux transfer events (FTEs). The results demonstrate the spatiotemporal variations of the energy flux along the magnetopause during an FTE, associating the FTE leading (trailing) edge with an energy injection into (escape from) the magnetosphere on the dayside. Furthermore, FTEs traveling along the magnetopause transport energy to the nightside magnetosphere. We identify the tail lobes as a primary entry region for solar wind energy into the magnetosphere, consistent with results from global magnetohydrodynamic simulations and observations.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Pc5 ultralow frequency waves are important for transferring energy between the magnetosphere and ionosphere. While many observations have been performed on Pc5 waves properties, it has been difficult to determine the source region, signal propagation path, and the two‐dimensional structure of Pc5 waves beyond coverage by a small number of satellites. Pc5 waves often show a dawn‐dusk asymmetry, but the cause of the asymmetry is under debate. To address these issues, we used conjunction events between the THEMIS satellites and all‐sky imagers and analyzed two Pc5 wave events that were stronger on the dawnside. For both events, the Pc5 waves propagated from dawnside magnetopause toward the nightside magnetosphere. The Pc5 waves were also associated with dawnside magnetopause surface waves, which were probably induced by the Kelvin‐Helmholtz instability. The ionospheric equivalent currents identified multiple vortices on the dawnside associated with quasi‐periodic auroral arcs and much weaker perturbations on the duskside. Global auroral imaging also presented a similar dawn‐dusk asymmetry with multiple arcs on the dawnside, while only one or two major arcs existed on the duskside. Pc5 waves in the magnetosphere had an anti‐phase relation between the total magnetic field and thermal pressure, with a slower propagation velocity compared with magnetohydrodynamic waves. The Poynting flux was anti‐sunward with an oscillating field‐aligned component. These properties suggest that Pc5 waves were slow or drift mirror mode waves coupled with standing Alfven waves. The ground‐based and multi‐satellite observations provide crucial information for determining the Pc5 waves properties, possible source region, and signal propagation path.

    more » « less
  3. Site description. This data package consists of data obtained from sampling surface soil (the 0-7.6 cm depth profile) in black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) dominated forest and black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) saltmarsh along the Gulf of Mexico coastline in peninsular west-central Florida, USA. This location has a subtropical climate with mean daily temperatures ranging from 15.4 °C in January to 27.8 °C in August, and annual precipitation of 1336 mm. Precipitation falls as rain primarily between June and September. Tides are semi-diurnal, with 0.57 m median amplitudes during the year preceding sampling (U.S. NOAA National Ocean Service, Clearwater Beach, Florida, station 8726724). Sea-level rise is 4.0 ± 0.6 mm per year (1973-2020 trend, mean ± 95 % confidence interval, NOAA NOS Clearwater Beach station). The A. germinans mangrove zone is either adjacent to water or fringed on the seaward side by a narrow band of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). A near-monoculture of J. roemerianus is often adjacent to and immediately landward of the A. germinans zone. The transition from the mangrove to the J. roemerianus zone is variable in our study area. An abrupt edge between closed-canopy mangrove and J. roemerianus monoculture may extend for up to several hundred meters in some locations, while other stretches of ecotone present a gradual transition where smaller, widely spaced trees are interspersed into the herbaceous marsh. Juncus roemerianus then extends landward to a high marsh patchwork of succulent halophytes (including Salicornia bigellovi, Sesuvium sp., and Batis maritima), scattered dwarf mangrove, and salt pans, followed in turn by upland vegetation that includes Pinus sp. and Serenoa repens. Field design and sample collection. We established three study sites spaced at approximately 5 km intervals along the western coastline of the central Florida peninsula. The sites consisted of the Salt Springs (28.3298°, -82.7274°), Energy Marine Center (28.2903°, -82.7278°), and Green Key (28.2530°, -82.7496°) sites on the Gulf of Mexico coastline in Pasco County, Florida, USA. At each site, we established three plot pairs, each consisting of one saltmarsh plot and one mangrove plot. Plots were 50 m^2 in size. Plots pairs within a site were separated by 230-1070 m, and the mangrove and saltmarsh plots composing a pair were 70-170 m apart. All plot pairs consisted of directly adjacent patches of mangrove forest and J. roemerianus saltmarsh, with the mangrove forests exhibiting a closed canopy and a tree architecture (height 4-6 m, crown width 1.5-3 m). Mangrove plots were located at approximately the midpoint between the seaward edge (water-mangrove interface) and landward edge (mangrove-marsh interface) of the mangrove zone. Saltmarsh plots were located 20-25 m away from any mangrove trees and into the J. roemerianus zone (i.e., landward from the mangrove-marsh interface). Plot pairs were coarsely similar in geomorphic setting, as all were located on the Gulf of Mexico coastline, rather than within major sheltering formations like Tampa Bay, and all plot pairs fit the tide-dominated domain of the Woodroffe classification (Woodroffe, 2002, "Coasts: Form, Process and Evolution", Cambridge University Press), given their conspicuous semi-diurnal tides. There was nevertheless some geomorphic variation, as some plot pairs were directly open to the Gulf of Mexico while others sat behind keys and spits or along small tidal creeks. Our use of a plot-pair approach is intended to control for this geomorphic variation. Plot center elevations (cm above mean sea level, NAVD 88) were estimated by overlaying the plot locations determined with a global positioning system (Garmin GPS 60, Olathe, KS, USA) on a LiDAR-derived bare-earth digital elevation model (Dewberry, Inc., 2019). The digital elevation model had a vertical accuracy of ± 10 cm (95 % CI) and a horizontal accuracy of ± 116 cm (95 % CI). Soil samples were collected via coring at low tide in June 2011. From each plot, we collected a composite soil sample consisting of three discrete 5.1 cm diameter soil cores taken at equidistant points to 7.6 cm depth. Cores were taken by tapping a sleeve into the soil until its top was flush with the soil surface, sliding a hand under the core, and lifting it up. Cores were then capped and transferred on ice to our laboratory at the University of South Florida (Tampa, Florida, USA), where they were combined in plastic zipper bags, and homogenized by hand into plot-level composite samples on the day they were collected. A damp soil subsample was immediately taken from each composite sample to initiate 1 y incubations for determination of active C and N (see below). The remainder of each composite sample was then placed in a drying oven (60 °C) for 1 week with frequent mixing of the soil to prevent aggregation and liberate water. Organic wetland soils are sometimes dried at 70 °C, however high drying temperatures can volatilize non-water liquids and oxidize and decompose organic matter, so 50 °C is also a common drying temperature for organic soils (Gardner 1986, "Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1", Soil Science Society of America); we accordingly chose 60 °C as a compromise between sufficient water removal and avoidance of non-water mass loss. Bulk density was determined as soil dry mass per core volume (adding back the dry mass equivalent of the damp subsample removed prior to drying). Dried subsamples were obtained for determination of soil organic matter (SOM), mineral texture composition, and extractable and total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) within the following week. Sample analyses. A dried subsample was apportioned from each composite sample to determine SOM as mass loss on ignition at 550 °C for 4 h. After organic matter was removed from soil via ignition, mineral particle size composition was determined using a combination of wet sieving and density separation in 49 mM (3 %) sodium hexametaphosphate ((NaPO_3)_6) following procedures in Kettler et al. (2001, Soil Science Society of America Journal 65, 849-852). The percentage of dry soil mass composed of silt and clay particles (hereafter, fines) was calculated as the mass lost from dispersed mineral soil after sieving (0.053 mm mesh sieve). Fines could have been slightly underestimated if any clay particles were burned off during the preceding ignition of soil. An additional subsample was taken from each composite sample to determine extractable N and organic C concentrations via 0.5 M potassium sulfate (K_2SO_4) extractions. We combined soil and extractant (ratio of 1 g dry soil:5 mL extractant) in plastic bottles, reciprocally shook the slurry for 1 h at 120 rpm, and then gravity filtered it through Fisher G6 (1.6 μm pore size) glass fiber filters, followed by colorimetric detection of nitrite (NO_2^-) + nitrate (NO_3^-) and ammonium (NH_4^+) in the filtrate (Hood Nowotny et al., 2010,Soil Science Society of America Journal 74, 1018-1027) using a microplate spectrophotometer (Biotek Epoch, Winooski, VT, USA). Filtrate was also analyzed for dissolved organic C (referred to hereafter as extractable organic C) and total dissolved N via combustion and oxidation followed by detection of the evolved CO_2 and N oxide gases on a Formacs HT TOC/TN analyzer (Skalar, Breda, The Netherlands). Extractable organic N was then computed as total dissolved N in filtrate minus extractable mineral N (itself the sum of extractable NH_4-N and NO_2-N + NO_3-N). We determined soil total C and N from dried, milled subsamples subjected to elemental analysis (ECS 4010, Costech, Inc., Valencia, CA, USA) at the University of South Florida Stable Isotope Laboratory. Median concentration of inorganic C in unvegetated surface soil at our sites is 0.5 % of soil mass (Anderson, 2019, Univ. of South Florida M.S. thesis via methods in Wang et al., 2011, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 174, 241-257). Inorganic C concentrations are likely even lower in our samples from under vegetation, where organic matter would dilute the contribution of inorganic C to soil mass. Nevertheless, the presence of a small inorganic C pool in our soils may be counted in the total C values we report. Extractable organic C is necessarily of organic C origin given the method (sparging with HCl) used in detection. Active C and N represent the fractions of organic C and N that are mineralizable by soil microorganisms under aerobic conditions in long-term soil incubations. To quantify active C and N, 60 g of field-moist soil were apportioned from each composite sample, placed in a filtration apparatus, and incubated in the dark at 25 °C and field capacity moisture for 365 d (as in Lewis et al., 2014, Ecosphere 5, art59). Moisture levels were maintained by frequently weighing incubated soil and wetting them up to target mass. Daily CO_2 flux was quantified on 29 occasions at 0.5-3 week intervals during the incubation period (with shorter intervals earlier in the incubation), and these per day flux rates were integrated over the 365 d period to compute an estimate of active C. Observations of per day flux were made by sealing samples overnight in airtight chambers fitted with septa and quantifying headspace CO_2 accumulation by injecting headspace samples (obtained through the septa via needle and syringe) into an infrared gas analyzer (PP Systems EGM 4, Amesbury, MA, USA). To estimate active N, each incubated sample was leached with a C and N free, 35 psu solution containing micronutrients (Nadelhoffer, 1990, Soil Science Society of America Journal 54, 411-415) on 19 occasions at increasing 1-6 week intervals during the 365 d incubation, and then extracted in 0.5 M K_2SO_4 at the end of the incubation in order to remove any residual mineral N. Active N was then quantified as the total mass of mineral N leached and extracted. Mineral N in leached and extracted solutions was detected as NH_4-N and NO_2-N + NO_3-N via colorimetry as above. This incubation technique precludes new C and N inputs and persistently leaches mineral N, forcing microorganisms to meet demand by mineralizing existing pools, and thereby directly assays the potential activity of soil organic C and N pools present at the time of soil sampling. Because this analysis commences with disrupting soil physical structure, it is biased toward higher estimates of active fractions. Calculations. Non-mobile C and N fractions were computed as total C and N concentrations minus the extractable and active fractions of each element. This data package reports surface-soil constituents (moisture, fines, SOM, and C and N pools and fractions) in both gravimetric units (mass constituent / mass soil) and areal units (mass constituent / soil surface area integrated through 7.6 cm soil depth, the depth of sampling). Areal concentrations were computed as X × D × 7.6, where X is the gravimetric concentration of a soil constituent, D is soil bulk density (g dry soil / cm^3), and 7.6 is the sampling depth in cm. 
    more » « less
  4. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) and its effects relating to the transfer of energy and mass from the solar wind into the magnetosphere remain an important focus of magnetospheric physics. One such effect is the generation of Pc4-Pc5 ultra low frequency (ULF) waves (periods of 45–600 s). On July 3, 2007 at ∼ 0500 magnetic local time the Cluster space mission encountered Pc4 frequency Kelvin-Helmholtz waves (KHWs) at the high latitude magnetopause with signatures of persistent vortices. Such signatures included bipolar fluctuations of the magnetic field normal component associated with a total pressure increase and rapid change in density at vortex edges; oscillations of magnetosheath and magnetospheric plasma populations; existence of fast-moving, low-density, mixed plasma; quasi-periodic oscillations of the boundary normal and an anti-phase relation between the normal and parallel components of the boundary velocity. The event occurred during a period of southward polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field according to the OMNI data and THEMIS observations at the subsolar point. Several of the KHI vortices were associated with reconnection indicated by the Walén relation, the presence of deHoffman-Teller frames, field-aligned ion beams observed together with bipolar fluctuations in the normal magnetic field component, and crescent ion distributions. Global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the event also resulted in KHWs at the magnetopause. The observed KHWs associated with reconnection coincided with recorded ULF waves at the ground whose properties suggest that they were driven by those waves. Such properties were the location of Cluster’s magnetic foot point, the Pc4 frequency, and the solar wind conditions. 
    more » « less
  5. Near‐surface turbulent flux and radiation divergence field observations are analysed over a grass‐covered surface located at the Wageningen observatory, the Netherlands. Net radiative flux divergence appears to be a large component of the energy budget near the surface, accounting for a cooling rate of several tens of degrees per day. Long‐wave radiation divergence dominates this radiation divergence flux. We show here that long‐wave flux divergence near the surface is strongly coupled to sensible heat flux, except in high relative humidity (>90%) and foggy conditions. The net long‐wave radiative flux divergence exhibits a sharp gradient within the first 20 m above the surface. This flux divergence is itself strongly coupled to sensible heat flux through adjustments in surface‐layer profiles. Nonetheless, no systematic effect of radiation is witnessed on the turbulent temperature spectrum so that the main effect of near‐surface radiation is on the mean heat budget. As typical flux‐gradient relationships are derived based on observations taken in the near‐surface boundary‐layer region where sharp long‐wave divergence is present, we suspect that those relationships implicitly represent some of the long‐wave divergence term. A modification of Monin–Obukhov Similarity Theory to include the effect of radiative divergence is proposed and discussed. This calls for independent measurements of turbulent fluxes and radiative flux divergence near the surface to re‐derive turbulent flux‐gradient relationships independently of radiative effects.

    more » « less