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- Quantum Science and Technology
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- National Science Foundation
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Measurement-based generation and preservation of cat and grid states within a continuous-variable cluster stateWe present an algorithm to reliably generate various quantum states critical to quantum error correction and universal continuous-variable (CV) quantum computing, such as Schrödinger cat states and Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill (GKP) grid states, out of Gaussian CV cluster states. Our algorithm is based on the Photon-counting-Assisted Node-Teleportation Method (PhANTM), which uses standard Gaussian information processing on the cluster state with the only addition of local photon-number-resolving measurements. We show that PhANTM can apply polynomial gates and embed cat states within the cluster. This method stabilizes cat states against Gaussian noise and perpetuates non-Gaussianity within the cluster. We show that existing protocols for breeding cat states can be embedded into cluster state processing using PhANTM.
Quantum cryptography provides absolute security against an all-powerful eavesdropper (Eve). However, in practice Eve's resources may be restricted to a limited aperture size so that she cannot collect all paraxial light without alerting the communicating parties (Alice and Bob). In this paper we study a quantum wiretap channel in which the connection from Alice to Eve is lossy, so that some of the transmitted quantum information is inaccessible to both Bob and Eve. For a pureloss channel under such restricted eavesdropping, we show that the key rates achievable with a two-mode squeezed vacuum state, heterodyne detection, and public classical communication assistance-given by the Hashing inequality-can exceed the secret key distillation capacity of the channel against an omnipotent eavesdropper. We report upper bounds on the key rates under the restricted eavesdropping model based on the relative entropy of entanglement, which closely match the achievable rates. For the pure-loss channel under restricted eavesdropping, we compare the secret-key rates of continuous-variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD) based on Gaussian-modulated coherent states and heterodyne detection with the discrete variable (DV) decoystate BB84 QKD protocol based on polarization qubits encoded in weak coherent laser pulses.
We examine the viability of quantum repeaters based on two-species trapped ion modules for long-distance quantum key distribution. Repeater nodes comprised of ion-trap modules of co-trapped ions of distinct species are considered. The species used for communication qubits has excellent optical properties while the other longer lived species serves as a memory qubit in the modules. Each module interacts with the network only via single photons emitted by the communication ions. Coherent Coulomb interaction between ions is utilized to transfer quantum information between the communication and memory ions and to achieve entanglement swapping between two memory ions. We describe simple modular quantum repeater architectures realizable with the ion-trap modules and numerically study the dependence of the quantum key distribution rate on various experimental parameters, including coupling efficiency, gate infidelity, operation time and length of the elementary links. Our analysis suggests crucial improvements necessary in a physical implementation for co-trapped two-species ions to be a competitive platform in long-distance quantum communication.
With the vastly growing need for secure communication, quantum key distribution (QKD) has been developed to provide high security for communications against potential attacks from the fast-developing quantum computers. Among different QKD protocols, continuous variable (CV-) QKD employing Gaussian modulated coherent states has been promising for its complete security proof and its compatibility with current communication systems in implementation with homodyne or heterodyne detection. Since satellite communication has been more and more important in developing global communication networks, there have been concerns about the security in satellite communication and how we should evaluate the security of CV-QKD in such scenarios. To better analyse the secure key rate (SKR) in this case, in this invited paper we investigate the CV-QKD SKR lower bounds under realistic assumptions over a satellite-to-satellite channel. We also investigate the eavesdropper's best strategy to apply in these scenarios. We demonstrate that for these channel conditions with well-chosen carrier centre frequency and receiver aperture size, based on channel parameters, we can optimize SKR correspondingly. The proposed satellite-based QKD system provides high security level for the coming 5G and beyond networks, the Internet of things, self-driving cars, and other fast-developing applications.
We propose an architecture of quantum-error-correction-based quantum repeaters that combines techniques used in discrete- and continuous-variable quantum information. Specifically, we propose to encode the transmitted qubits in a concatenated code consisting of two levels. On the first level we use a continuous-variable GKP code encoding the qubit in a single bosonic mode. On the second level we use a small discrete-variable code. Such an architecture has two important features. Firstly, errors on each of the two levels are corrected in repeaters of two different types. This enables for achieving performance needed in practical scenarios with a reduced cost with respect to an architecture for which all repeaters are the same. Secondly, the use of continuous-variable GKP code on the lower level generates additional analog information which enhances the error-correcting capabilities of the second-level code such that long-distance communication becomes possible with encodings consisting of only four or seven optical modes.