skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on May 1, 2023

Title: Evolution of a Peculiar Type Ibn Supernova SN 2019wep
Abstract We present a high-cadence short term photometric and spectroscopic monitoring campaign of a type Ibn SN 2019wep, which is one of the rare SN Ibn after SNe 2010al and 2019uo to display signatures of flash ionization (He ii , C iii , N iii ). We compare the decline rates and rise time of SN 2019wep with other SNe Ibn and fast transients. The post-peak decline in all bands (0.1 mag day −1 ) are consistent with SNe Ibn but less than the fast transients. On the other hand, the Δ m 15 values are slightly lower than the average values for SNe Ibn but consistent with the fast transients. The rise time is typically shorter than SNe Ibn but longer than fast transients. SN 2019wep lies at the fainter end of SNe Ibn but possesses an average luminosity among the fast transients sample. The peculiar color evolution places it between SNe Ib and the most extreme SNe Ibn. The bolometric light-curve modeling shows resemblance with SN 2019uo with ejecta masses consistent with SNe Ib. SN 2019wep belongs to the P cygni subclass of SNe Ibn and shows faster evolution in line velocities as compared to the emission subclass. more » The post-maximum spectra show close resemblance with ASASSN-15ed hinting it to be of SN Ib nature. The low He i CSM velocities and residual H α further justifies it and provide evidence of an intermittent progenitor between Wolf-Rayet and LBV stars. « less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1911225 1911151
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10358407
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Volume:
930
Issue:
2
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
127
ISSN:
0004-637X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Rapidly evolving transients, or objects that rise and fade in brightness on timescales two to three times shorter than those of typical Type Ia or Type II supernovae (SNe), have uncertain progenitor systems and powering mechanisms. Recent studies have noted similarities between rapidly evolving transients and Type Ibn SNe, which are powered by ejecta interacting with He-rich circumstellar material (CSM). In this work we present multiband photometric and spectroscopic observations from Las Cumbres Observatory and Swift of four fast-evolving Type Ibn SNe. We compare these observations with those of rapidly evolving transients identified in the literature. We discuss several common characteristics between these two samples, including their light curve and color evolution as well as their spectral features. To investigate a common powering mechanism we construct a grid of analytical model light curves with luminosity inputs from CSM interaction as well as56Ni radioactive decay. We find that models with ejecta masses of ≈1–3M, CSM masses of ≈0.2–1M, and CSM radii of ≈20–65 au can explain the diversity of peak luminosities, rise times, and decline rates observed in Type Ibn SNe and rapidly evolving transients. This suggests that a common progenitor system—the core collapse of a high-mass star within amore »dense CSM shell—can reproduce the light curves of even the most luminous and fast-evolving objects, such as AT 2018cow. This work is one of the first to reproduce the light curves of both SNe Ibn and other rapidly evolving transients with a single model.

    « less
  2. ABSTRACT

    We present BVRI and unfiltered (Clear) light curves of 70 stripped-envelope supernovae (SESNe), observed between 2003 and 2020, from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search follow-up program. Our SESN sample consists of 19 spectroscopically normal SNe Ib, 2 peculiar SNe Ib, six SNe Ibn, 14 normal SNe Ic, 1 peculiar SN Ic, 10 SNe Ic-BL, 15 SNe IIb, 1 ambiguous SN IIb/Ib/c, and 2 superluminous SNe. Our follow-up photometry has (on a per-SN basis) a mean coverage of 81 photometric points (median of 58 points) and a mean cadence of 3.6 d (median of 1.2 d). From our full sample, a subset of 38 SNe have pre-maximum coverage in at least one passband, allowing for the peak brightness of each SN in this subset to be quantitatively determined. We describe our data collection and processing techniques, with emphasis toward our automated photometry pipeline, from which we derive publicly available data products to enable and encourage further study by the community. Using these data products, we derive host-galaxy extinction values through the empirical colour evolution relationship and, for the first time, produce accurate rise-time measurements for a large sample of SESNe in both optical and infrared passbands. By modelling multiband light curves, we find that SNe Ic tend to have lower ejectamore »masses and lower ejecta velocities than SNe Ib and IIb, but higher 56Ni masses.

    « less
  3. Context. Supernovae (SNe) Type Ibn are rapidly evolving and bright ( M R, peak  ∼ −19) transients interacting with He-rich circumstellar material (CSM). SN 2018bcc, detected by the ZTF shortly after explosion, provides the best constraints on the shape of the rising light curve (LC) of a fast Type Ibn. Aims. We used the high-quality data set of SN 2018bcc to study observational signatures of the class. Additionally, the powering mechanism of SN 2018bcc offers insights into the debated progenitor connection of Type Ibn SNe. Methods. We compared well-constrained LC properties obtained from empirical models with the literature. We fit the pseudo-bolometric LC with semi-analytical models powered by radioactive decay and CSM interaction. Finally, we modeled the line profiles and emissivity of the prominent He  I lines, in order to study the formation of P-Cygni profiles and to estimate CSM properties. Results. SN 2018bcc had a rise time to peak of the LC of 5.6 −0.1 +0.2 days in the restframe with a rising shape power-law index close to 2, and seems to be a typical rapidly evolving Type Ibn SN. The spectrum lacked signatures of SN-like ejecta and was dominated by over 15 He emission features at 20 days past peak,more »alongside Ca and Mg, all with V FWHM ∼ 2000 km s −1 . The luminous and rapidly evolving LC could be powered by CSM interaction but not by the decay of radioactive 56 Ni. Modeling of the He  I lines indicated a dense and optically thick CSM that can explain the P-Cygni profiles. Conclusions. Like other rapidly evolving Type Ibn SNe, SN 2018bcc is a luminous transient with a rapid rise to peak powered by shock interaction inside a dense and He-rich CSM. Its spectra do not support the existence of two Type Ibn spectral classes. We also note the remarkable observational match to pulsational pair instability SN models.« less
  4. Abstract We present observations of SN 2021csp, the second example of a newly identified type of supernova (SN) hallmarked by strong, narrow, P Cygni carbon features at early times (Type Icn). The SN appears as a fast and luminous blue transient at early times, reaching a peak absolute magnitude of −20 within 3 days due to strong interaction between fast SN ejecta ( v ≈ 30,000 km s −1 ) and a massive, dense, fast-moving C/O wind shed by the WC-like progenitor months before explosion. The narrow-line features disappear from the spectrum 10–20 days after explosion and are replaced by a blue continuum dominated by broad Fe features, reminiscent of Type Ibn and IIn supernovae and indicative of weaker interaction with more extended H/He-poor material. The transient then abruptly fades ∼60 days post-explosion when interaction ceases. Deep limits at later phases suggest minimal heavy-element nucleosynthesis, a low ejecta mass, or both, and imply an origin distinct from that of classical Type Ic SNe. We place SN 2021csp in context with other fast-evolving interacting transients, and discuss various progenitor scenarios: an ultrastripped progenitor star, a pulsational pair-instability eruption, or a jet-driven fallback SN from a Wolf–Rayet (W-R) star. The fallback scenariomore »would naturally explain the similarity between these events and radio-loud fast transients, and suggests a picture in which most stars massive enough to undergo a W-R phase collapse directly to black holes at the end of their lives.« less
  5. ABSTRACT Rapidly evolving transients (RETs), also termed fast blue optical transients, are a recently discovered group of astrophysical events that display rapid luminosity evolution. RETs typically rise to peak in less than 10 d and fade within 30, a time-scale unlikely to be compatible with the decay of Nickel-56 that drives conventional supernovae (SNe). Their peak luminosity spans a range of −15 < Mg < −22.5, with some events observed at redshifts greater than 1. Their evolution on fast time-scales has hindered high-quality follow-up observations, and thus their origin and explosion/emission mechanism remains unexplained. In this paper, we present the largest sample of RETs to date, comprising 106 objects discovered by the Dark Energy Survey, and perform the most comprehensive analysis of RET host galaxies. Using deep-stacked photometry and emission lines from OzDES spectroscopy, we derive stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) for 49 host galaxies, and metallicities ([O/H]) for 37. We find that RETs explode exclusively in star-forming galaxies and are thus likely associated with massive stars. Comparing RET hosts to samples of host galaxies of other explosive transients as well as field galaxies, we find that RETs prefer galaxies with high specific SFRs (〈log (sSFR)〉 ∼ −9.6), indicating a linkmore »to young stellar populations, similar to stripped-envelope SNe. RET hosts appear to show a lack of chemical enrichment, their metallicities akin to long-duration gamma-ray bursts and superluminous SN host galaxies (〈12 + log (O/H)〉 ∼ 9.4). There are no clear relationships between mass or SFR of the host galaxies and the peak magnitudes or decline rates of the transients themselves.« less