skip to main content


Title: Competition between allowed and first-forbidden β decays and the r -process
β − decay lifetimes are essential ingredients for r -process yield calculations. In N≈126 r -process waiting point nuclei first-forbidden and allowed β decays are expected to compete. Recent experiments performed at CERN/ISOLDE showed that 207,208 Hg decay predominantly via first-forbidden decays. In addition, following on a high statistics study of the β + / EC decay of 208 At, it is suggested that the Z>82, N<126 nuclei provide an excellent testing ground for global calculations addressing the competition between first-forbidden and allowed β decays.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1927130
NSF-PAR ID:
10358512
Author(s) / Creator(s):
Editor(s):
Liu, W.; Wang, Y.; Guo, B.; Tang, X.; Zeng, S.
Date Published:
Journal Name:
EPJ Web of Conferences
Volume:
260
ISSN:
2100-014X
Page Range / eLocation ID:
03005
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Liu, W. ; Wang, Y. ; Guo, B. ; Tang, X. ; Zeng, S. (Ed.)
    β -decay rates of neutron-rich nuclei, in particular those located at neutron shell closures, play a central role in simulations of the heavy-element nucleosynthesis and resulting abundance distributions. We present β -decay half-lives of even-even N = 82 and N = 126 r -process waiting-point nuclei calculated in the approach based on relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation with quasiparticle-vibration coupling. The calculations include both allowed and first-forbidden transitions. In the N = 82 chain, the quasiparticlevibration coupling has an important impact close to stability, as it increases the contribution of Gamow-Teller modes and improves the agreement with the available data. In the N = 126 chain, we find the decay to proceed dominantly via first-forbidden transitions, even when the coupling to vibrations is included. 
    more » « less
  2. Pakou, A. ; Bonatsos, D. ; Lalazissis, G. ; Souliotis, G. (Ed.)
    A program to investigate the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) quark-mixing matrix by studying super-allowed mixed mirror β decays has been initiated at the TwinSol facility at Notre Dame. These mixed Fermi/Gamow-Teller (F-GT) decays, occurring between T=1/2 isospin doublets in mirror nuclei, provide a complimentary check on the data from super-allowed pure Fermi decays from 0 + to 0 + states. The first part of the program, involving the measurement of the lifetimes of the relevant nuclei to the required accuracy of one part in 10 3 or better, has nearly been completed. However, the additional complication introduced by F-GT mixing requires the use of an ion trap to measure the mixing ratio ρ with similar accuracy. The lifetime measurements, as well as progress in installing an ion trap at TwinSol , will be discussed. In addition, since the ion trap will require a dedicated beam line for its operation, an opportunity presented itself to greatly improve the performance of TwinSol for reaction studies with exotic nuclei. This took the form of an added dipole switching magnet coupled to a third solenoid to form the new TriSol facility currently under construction. The expected properties of TriSol , and its application to reaction studies of interest for nuclear astrophysics, will also be discussed. 
    more » « less
  3. Meteoritic analysis demonstrates that radioactive nuclei heavier than iron were present in the early Solar System. Among them, 129I and 247Cm both have a rapid neutron-capture process (r process) origin and decay on the same timescale (≃ 15.6 Myr). We show that the 129I/247Cm abundance ratio in the early Solar System (438±184) is immune to galactic evolution uncertainties and represents the first direct observational constraint for the properties of the last r-process event that polluted the pre-solar nebula. We investigate the physical conditions of this event using nucleosynthesis calculations and demonstrate that moderately neutron-rich ejecta can produce the observed ratio. We conclude that a dominant contribution by exceedingly neutron-rich ejecta is highly disfavoured. 
    more » « less
  4. ABSTRACT

    Theoretically predicted yields of elements created by the rapid neutron capture (r-)process carry potentially large uncertainties associated with incomplete knowledge of nuclear properties and approximative hydrodynamical modelling of the matter ejection processes. We present an in-depth study of the nuclear uncertainties by varying theoretical nuclear input models that describe the experimentally unknown neutron-rich nuclei. This includes two frameworks for calculating the radiative neutron capture rates and 14 different models for nuclear masses, β-decay rates, and fission properties. Our r-process nuclear network calculations are based on detailed hydrodynamical simulations of dynamically ejected material from NS–NS or NS–BH binary mergers plus the secular ejecta from BH–torus systems. The impact of nuclear uncertainties on the r-process abundance distribution and the early radioactive heating rate is found to be modest (within a factor of ∼20 for individual A > 90 abundances and a factor of 2 for the heating rate). However, the impact on the late-time heating rate is more significant and depends strongly on the contribution from fission. We witness significantly higher sensitivity to the nuclear physics input if only a single trajectory is used compared to considering ensembles with a much larger number of trajectories (ranging between 150 and 300), and the quantitative effects of the nuclear uncertainties strongly depend on the adopted conditions for the individual trajectory. We use the predicted Th/U ratio to estimate the cosmochronometric age of six metal-poor stars and find the impact of the nuclear uncertainties to be up to 2 Gyr.

     
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    We present the first unquenched lattice-QCD calculation of the form factors for the decay$$B\rightarrow D^*\ell \nu $$BDνat nonzero recoil. Our analysis includes 15 MILC ensembles with$$N_f=2+1$$Nf=2+1flavors of asqtad sea quarks, with a strange quark mass close to its physical mass. The lattice spacings range from$$a\approx 0.15$$a0.15fm down to 0.045 fm, while the ratio between the light- and the strange-quark masses ranges from 0.05 to 0.4. The valencebandcquarks are treated using the Wilson-clover action with the Fermilab interpretation, whereas the light sector employs asqtad staggered fermions. We extrapolate our results to the physical point in the continuum limit using rooted staggered heavy-light meson chiral perturbation theory. Then we apply a model-independent parametrization to extend the form factors to the full kinematic range. With this parametrization we perform a joint lattice-QCD/experiment fit using several experimental datasets to determine the CKM matrix element$$|V_{cb}|$$|Vcb|. We obtain$$\left| V_{cb}\right| = (38.40 \pm 0.68_{\text {th}} \pm 0.34_{\text {exp}} \pm 0.18_{\text {EM}})\times 10^{-3}$$Vcb=(38.40±0.68th±0.34exp±0.18EM)×10-3. The first error is theoretical, the second comes from experiment and the last one includes electromagnetic and electroweak uncertainties, with an overall$$\chi ^2\text {/dof} = 126/84$$χ2/dof=126/84, which illustrates the tensions between the experimental data sets, and between theory and experiment. This result is in agreement with previous exclusive determinations, but the tension with the inclusive determination remains. Finally, we integrate the differential decay rate obtained solely from lattice data to predict$$R(D^*) = 0.265 \pm 0.013$$R(D)=0.265±0.013, which confirms the current tension between theory and experiment.

     
    more » « less