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This content will become publicly available on October 10, 2023

Title: Drag force in granular shear flows: regimes, scaling laws and implications for segregation
The drag force on a spherical intruder in dense granular shear flows is studied using discrete element method simulations. Three regimes of the intruder dynamics are observed depending on the magnitude of the drag force (or the corresponding intruder velocity) and the flow inertial number: a fluctuation-dominated regime for small drag forces; a viscous regime for intermediate drag forces; and an inertial (cavity formation) regime for large drag forces. The transition from the viscous regime (linear force-velocity relation) to the inertial regime (quadratic force-velocity relation) depends further on the inertial number. Despite these distinct intruder dynamics, we find a quantitative similarity between the intruder drag in granular shear flows and the Stokesian drag on a sphere in a viscous fluid for intruder Reynolds numbers spanning five orders of magnitude. Beyond this first-order description, a modified Stokes drag model is developed that accounts for the secondary dependence of the drag coefficient on the inertial number and the intruder size and density ratios. When the drag model is coupled with a segregation force model for intruders in dense granular flows, it is possible to predict the velocity of gravity-driven segregation of an intruder particle in shear flow simulations.
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Journal of Fluid Mechanics
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National Science Foundation
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