skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Friday, May 17 until 8:00 AM ET on Saturday, May 18 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: DeepGPD: A Deep Learning Approach for Modeling Geospatio-Temporal Extreme Events
Geospatio-temporal data are pervasive across numerous application domains.These rich datasets can be harnessed to predict extreme events such as disease outbreaks, flooding, crime spikes, etc.However, since the extreme events are rare, predicting them is a hard problem. Statistical methods based on extreme value theory provide a systematic way for modeling the distribution of extreme values. In particular, the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) is useful for modeling the distribution of excess values above a certain threshold. However, applying such methods to large-scale geospatio-temporal data is a challenge due to the difficulty in capturing the complex spatial relationships between extreme events at multiple locations. This paper presents a deep learning framework for long-term prediction of the distribution of extreme values at different locations. We highlight its computational challenges and present a novel framework that combines convolutional neural networks with deep set and GPD. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on a real-world dataset for modeling extreme climate events.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2006633
NSF-PAR ID:
10358674
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence
Volume:
36
Issue:
4
ISSN:
2159-5399
Page Range / eLocation ID:
4245 to 4253
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. null (Ed.)
    Spatial extremes are common for climate data as the observations are usually referenced by geographic locations and dependent when they are nearby. An important goal of extremes modeling is to estimate the T-year return level. Among the methods suitable for modeling spatial extremes, perhaps the simplest and fastest approach is the spatial generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution and the spatial generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) that assume marginal independence and only account for dependence through the parameters. Despite the simplicity, simulations have shown that return level estimation using the spatial GEV and spatial GPD still provides satisfactory results compared to max-stable processes, which are asymptotically justified models capable of representing spatial dependence among extremes. However, the linear functions used to model the spatially varying coefficients are restrictive and may be violated.We propose a flexible and fast approach based on the spatial GEV and spatial GPD by introducing fused lasso and fused ridge penalty for parameter regularization. This enables improved return level estimation for large spatial extremes compared to the existing methods. Supplemental files for this article are available online. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Flood nowcasting refers to near-future prediction of flood status as an extreme weather event unfolds to enhance situational awareness. The objective of this study was to adopt and test a novel structured deep-learning model for urban flood nowcasting by integrating physics-based and human-sensed features. We present a new computational modeling framework including an attention-based spatial–temporal graph convolution network (ASTGCN) model and different streams of data that are collected in real-time, preprocessed, and fed into the model to consider spatial and temporal information and dependencies that improve flood nowcasting. The novelty of the computational modeling framework is threefold: first, the model is capable of considering spatial and temporal dependencies in inundation propagation thanks to the spatial and temporal graph convolutional modules; second, it enables capturing the influence of heterogeneous temporal data streams that can signal flooding status, including physics-based features (e.g., rainfall intensity and water elevation) and human-sensed data (e.g., residents’ flood reports and fluctuations of human activity) on flood nowcasting. Third, its attention mechanism enables the model to direct its focus to the most influential features that vary dynamically and influence the flood nowcasting. We show the application of the modeling framework in the context of Harris County, Texas, as the study area and 2017 Hurricane Harvey as the flood event. Three categories of features are used for nowcasting the extent of flood inundation in different census tracts: (i) static features that capture spatial characteristics of various locations and influence their flood status similarity, (ii) physics-based dynamic features that capture changes in hydrodynamic variables, and (iii) heterogeneous human-sensed dynamic features that capture various aspects of residents’ activities that can provide information regarding flood status. Results indicate that the ASTGCN model provides superior performance for nowcasting of urban flood inundation at the census-tract level, with precision 0.808 and recall 0.891, which shows the model performs better compared with other state-of-the-art models. Moreover, ASTGCN model performance improves when heterogeneous dynamic features are added into the model that solely relies on physics-based features, which demonstrates the promise of using heterogenous human-sensed data for flood nowcasting. Given the results of the comparisons of the models, the proposed modeling framework has the potential to be more investigated when more data of historical events are available in order to develop a predictive tool to provide community responders with an enhanced prediction of the flood inundation during urban flood.

     
    more » « less
  3. Forecasting the block maxima of a future time window is a challenging task due to the difficulty in inferring the tail distribution of a target variable. As the historical observations alone may not be sufficient to train robust models to predict the block maxima, domain-driven process models are often available in many scientific domains to supplement the observation data and improve the forecast accuracy. Unfortunately, coupling the historical observations with process model outputs is a challenge due to their disparate temporal coverage. This paper presents Self-Recover, a deep learning framework to predict the block maxima of a time window by employing self-supervised learning to address the varying temporal data coverage problem. Specifically Self-Recover uses a combination of contrastive and generative self-supervised learning schemes along with a denoising autoencoder to impute the missing values. The framework also combines representations of the historical observations with process model outputs via a residual learning approach and learns the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution characterizing the block maxima values. This enables the framework to reliably estimate the block maxima of each time window along with its confidence interval. Extensive experiments on real-world datasets demonstrate the superiority of Self-Recover compared to other state-of-the-art forecasting methods.

     
    more » « less
  4. Zhang, Aidong ; Rangwala, Huzefa (Ed.)
    Zero-inflated, heavy-tailed spatiotemporal data is common across science and engineering, from climate science to meteorology and seismology. A central modeling objective in such settings is to forecast the intensity, frequency, and timing of extreme and non-extreme events; yet in the context of deep learning, this objective presents several key challenges. First, a deep learning framework applied to such data must unify a mixture of distributions characterizing the zero events, moderate events, and extreme events. Second, the framework must be capable of enforcing parameter constraints across each component of the mixture distribution. Finally, the framework must be flexible enough to accommodate for any changes in the threshold used to define an extreme event after training. To address these challenges, we propose Deep Extreme Mixture Model (DEMM), fusing a deep learning-based hurdle model with extreme value theory to enable point and distribution prediction of zero-inflated, heavy-tailed spatiotemporal variables. The framework enables users to dynamically set a threshold for defining extreme events at inference-time without the need for retraining. We present an extensive experimental analysis applying DEMM to precipitation forecasting, and observe significant improvements in point and distribution prediction. All code is available at https://github.com/andrewmcdonald27/DeepExtremeMixtureModel. 
    more » « less
  5. Accurate forecasting of extreme values in time series is critical due to the significant impact of extreme events on human and natural systems. This paper presents DeepExtrema, a novel framework that combines a deep neural network (DNN) with generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution to forecast the block maximum value of a time series. Implementing such a network is a challenge as the framework must preserve the inter-dependent constraints among the GEV model parameters even when the DNN is initialized. We describe our approach to address this challenge and present an architecture that enables both conditional mean and quantile prediction of the block maxima. The extensive experiments performed on both real-world and synthetic data demonstrated the superiority of DeepExtrema compared to other baseline methods.

     
    more » « less