skip to main content

Title: AVMaestro: A Centralized Policy Enforcement Framework for Safe Autonomous-driving Environments
Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are on the verge of changing the transportation industry. Despite the fast development of autonomous driving systems (ADSs), they still face safety and security challenges. Current defensive approaches usually focus on a narrow objective and are bound to specific platforms, making them difficult to generalize. To solve these limitations, we propose AVMaestro, an efficient and effective policy enforcement framework for full-stack ADSs. AVMaestro includes a code instrumentation module to systematically collect required information across the entire ADS, which will then be feed into a centralized data examination module, where users can utilize the global information to deploy defensive methods to protect AVs from various threats. AVMaestro is evaluated on top of Apollo-6.0 and experimental results confirm that it can be easily incorporated into the original ADS with almost negligible run-time delay. We further demonstrate that utilizing the global information can not only improve the accuracy of existing intrusion detection methods, but also potentially inspire new security applications.
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1929771 1932464 2145493
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10359470
Journal Name:
IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV)
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Autonomous Vehicle (AV) technology has the potential to significantly improve driver safety. Unfortunately, driver could be reluctant to ride with AVs due to the lack of trust and acceptance of AV’s driving styles. The present study investigated the impact of driver’s driving style (aggressive/defensive) and the designed driving styles of AVs (aggressive/defensive) on driver’s trust, acceptance, and take-over behavior in fully autonomous vehicles. Thirty-two participants were classified into two groups based on their driving styles using the Aggressive Driving Scale and experienced twelve scenarios in either an aggressive AV or a defensive AV. Results revealed that drivers’ trust, acceptance, and takeover frequency were significantly influenced by the interaction effects between AV’s driving style and driver’s driving style. The findings implied that driver’s individual differences should be considered in the design of AV’s driving styles to enhance driver’s trust and acceptance of AVs and reduce undesired take over behaviors.
  2. Autonomous vehicles (AVs), equipped with numerous sensors such as camera, LiDAR, radar, and ultrasonic sensor, are revolutionizing the transportation industry. These sensors are expected to sense reliable information from a physical environment, facilitating the critical decision-making process of the AVs. Ultrasonic sensors, which detect obstacles in a short distance, play an important role in assisted parking and blind spot detection events. However, due to their weak security level, ultrasonic sensors are particularly vulnerable to signal injection attacks, when the attackers inject malicious acoustic signals to create fake obstacles and intentionally mislead the vehicles to make wrong decisions with disastrous aftermath. In this paper, we systematically analyze the attack model of signal injection attacks toward moving vehicles. By considering the potential threats, we propose SoundFence, a physical-layer defense system which leverages the sensors’ signal processing capability without requiring any additional equipment. SoundFence verifies the benign measurement results and detects signal injection attacks by analyzing sensor readings and the physical-layer signatures of ultrasonic signals. Our experiment with commercial sensors shows that SoundFence detects most (more than 95%) of the abnormal sensor readings with very few false alarms, and it can also accurately distinguish the real echo from injected signals to identify injectionmore »attacks.« less
  3. Recent decades have witnessed the breakthrough of autonomous vehicles (AVs), and the sensing capabilities of AVs have been dramatically improved. Various sensors installed on AVs will be collecting massive data and perceiving the surrounding traffic continuously. In fact, a fleet of AVs can serve as floating (or probe) sensors, which can be utilized to infer traffic information while cruising around the roadway networks. Unlike conventional traffic sensing methods relying on fixed location sensors or moving sensors that acquire only the information of their carrying vehicle, this paper leverages data from AVs carrying sensors for not only the information of the AVs, but also the characteristics of the surrounding traffic. A high-resolution data-driven traffic sensing framework is proposed, which estimates the fundamental traffic state characteristics, namely, flow, density and speed in high spatio-temporal resolutions and of each lane on a general road, and it is developed under different levels of AV perception capabilities and for any AV market penetration rate. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves high accuracy even with a low AV market penetration rate. This study would help policymakers and private sectors (e.g., Waymo) to understand the values of massive data collected by AVs in traffic operationmore »and management.« less
  4. In this paper we provide a proof of principle of a new method for addressing the ethics of autonomous vehicles (AVs), the Data-Theories Method, in which vehicle crash data is combined with philosophical ethical theory to provide a guide to action for AV algorithm design. We use this method to model three scenarios in which an AV is exposed to risk on the road, and determine possible actions for the AV. We then examine how different philosophical perspectives on agent partiality, or the degree to which one can act in one’s own self-interest, might address each scenario. This method shows why modelling the ethics of AVs using data is essential. First, AVs may sometimes have options that human drivers do not, and designing AVs to mimic the most ethical human driver would not ensure that they do the right thing. Second, while ethical theories can often disagree about what should be done, disagreement can be reduced and compromises found with a more complete understanding of the AV’s choices and their consequences. Finally, framing problems around thought experiments may elicit preferences that are divergent with what individuals might prefer once they are provided with information about the real risks for amore »scenario. Our method provides a principled and empirical approach to productively address these problems and offers guidance on AV algorithm design.« less
  5. Self-driving cars, or Autonomous Vehicles (AVs), are increasingly becoming an integral part of our daily life. About 50 corporations are actively working on AVs, including large companies such as Google, Ford, and Intel. Some AVs are already operating on public roads, with at least one unfortunate fatality recently on record. As a result, understanding bugs in AVs is critical for ensuring their security, safety, robustness, and correctness. While previous studies have focused on a variety of domains (e.g., numerical software; machine learning; and error-handling, concurrency, and performance bugs) to investigate bug characteristics, AVs have not been studied in a similar manner. Recently, two software systems for AVs, Baidu Apollo and Autoware, have emerged as frontrunners in the opensource community and have been used by large companies and governments (e.g., Lincoln, Volvo, Ford, Intel, Hitachi, LG, and the US Department of Transportation). From these two leading AV software systems, this paper describes our investigation of 16,851 commits and 499 AV bugs and introduces our classification of those bugs into 13 root causes, 20 bug symptoms, and 18 categories of software components those bugs often affect. We identify 16 major findings from our study and draw broader lessons from them to guidemore »the research community towards future directions in software bug detection, localization, and repair.« less