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  1. Safety and security play critical roles for the success of Autonomous Driving (AD) systems. Since AD systems heavily rely on AI components, the safety and security research of such components has also received great attention in recent years. While it is widely recognized that AI component-level (mis)behavior does not necessarily lead to AD system-level impacts, most of existing work still only adopts component-level evaluation. To fill such critical scientific methodology-level gap from component-level to real system-level impact, a system-driven evaluation platform jointly constructed by the community could be the solution. In this paper, we present PASS (Platform for Auto-driving Safety and Security), a system-driven evaluation prototype based on simulation. By sharing our platform building concept and preliminary efforts, we hope to call on the community to build a uniform and extensible platform to make AI safety and security work sufficiently meaningful at the system level.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. After the 2017 TuSimple Lane Detection Challenge, its dataset and evaluation based on accuracy and F1 score have become the de facto standard to measure the performance of lane detection methods. While they have played a major role in improving the performance of lane detection methods, the validity of this evaluation method in downstream tasks has not been adequately researched. In this study, we design 2 new driving-oriented metrics for lane detection: End-to-End Lateral Deviation metric (E2E-LD) is directly formulated based on the requirements of autonomous driving, a core downstream task of lane detection; Per-frame Simulated Lateral Deviation metric (PSLD) is a lightweight surrogate metric of E2E-LD. To evaluate the validity of the metrics, we conduct a large-scale empirical study with 4 major types of lane detection approaches on the TuSimple dataset and our newly constructed dataset Comma2k19-LD. Our results show that the conventional metrics have strongly negative correlations (≤-0.55) with E2E-LD, meaning that some recent improvements purely targeting the conventional metrics may not have led to meaningful improvements in autonomous driving, but rather may actually have made it worse by overfitting to the conventional metrics. As autonomous driving is a security/safety-critical system, the underestimation of robustness hinders the soundmore »development of practical lane detection models. We hope that our study will help the community achieve more downstream task-aware evaluations for lane detection.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  3. Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are on the verge of changing the transportation industry. Despite the fast development of autonomous driving systems (ADSs), they still face safety and security challenges. Current defensive approaches usually focus on a narrow objective and are bound to specific platforms, making them difficult to generalize. To solve these limitations, we propose AVMaestro, an efficient and effective policy enforcement framework for full-stack ADSs. AVMaestro includes a code instrumentation module to systematically collect required information across the entire ADS, which will then be feed into a centralized data examination module, where users can utilize the global information to deploy defensive methods to protect AVs from various threats. AVMaestro is evaluated on top of Apollo-6.0 and experimental results confirm that it can be easily incorporated into the original ADS with almost negligible run-time delay. We further demonstrate that utilizing the global information can not only improve the accuracy of existing intrusion detection methods, but also potentially inspire new security applications.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  4. Trajectory prediction is a critical component for autonomous vehicles (AVs) to perform safe planning and navigation. However, few studies have analyzed the adversarial robustness of trajectory prediction or investigated whether the worst-case prediction can still lead to safe planning. To bridge this gap, we study the adversarial robustness of trajectory prediction models by proposing a new adversarial attack that perturbs normal vehicle trajectories to maximize the prediction error. Our experiments on three models and three datasets show that the adversarial prediction increases the prediction error by more than 150%. Our case studies show that if an adversary drives a vehicle close to the target AV following the adversarial trajectory, the AV may make an inaccurate prediction and even make unsafe driving decisions. We also explore possible mitigation techniques via data augmentation and trajectory smoothing.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  5. In high-level Autonomous Driving (AD) systems, behavioral planning is in charge of making high-level driving decisions such as cruising and stopping, and thus highly securitycritical. In this work, we perform the first systematic study of semantic security vulnerabilities specific to overly-conservative AD behavioral planning behaviors, i.e., those that can cause failed or significantly-degraded mission performance, which can be critical for AD services such as robo-taxi/delivery. We call them semantic Denial-of-Service (DoS) vulnerabilities, which we envision to be most generally exposed in practical AD systems due to the tendency for conservativeness to avoid safety incidents. To achieve high practicality and realism, we assume that the attacker can only introduce seemingly-benign external physical objects to the driving environment, e.g., off-road dumped cardboard boxes. To systematically discover such vulnerabilities, we design PlanFuzz, a novel dynamic testing approach that addresses various problem-specific design challenges. Specifically, we propose and identify planning invariants as novel testing oracles, and design new input generation to systematically enforce problemspecific constraints for attacker-introduced physical objects. We also design a novel behavioral planning vulnerability distance metric to effectively guide the discovery. We evaluate PlanFuzz on 3 planning implementations from practical open-source AD systems, and find that it can effectively discover 9more »previouslyunknown semantic DoS vulnerabilities without false positives. We find all our new designs necessary, as without each design, statistically significant performance drops are generally observed. We further perform exploitation case studies using simulation and real-vehicle traces. We discuss root causes and potential fixes.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  6. Autonomous Driving (AD) is a rapidly developing technology and its security issues have been studied by various recent research works. With the growing interest and investment in leveraging intelligent infrastructure support for practical AD, AD system may have new opportunities to defend against existing AD attacks. In this paper, we are the first to systematically explore such a new AD security design space leveraging emerging infrastructure-side support, which we call Infrastructure-Aided Autonomous Driving Defense (I-A2D2). We first taxonomize existing AD attacks based on infrastructure-side capabilities, and then analyze potential I-A2D2 design opportunities and requirements. We further discuss the potential design challenges for these I-A2D2 design directions to be effective in practice.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  7. This paper proposes to use intrinsic examples as a DNN fingerprinting technique for the functionality verification of DNN models implemented on edge devices. The proposed intrinsic examples do not affect the normal DNN training and can enable the black-box testing capability for DNN models packaged into edge device applications. We provide three algorithms for deriving intrinsic examples of the pre-trained model (the model before the DNN system design and implementation procedure) to retrieve the knowledge learnt from the training dataset for the detection of adversarial third-party attacks such as transfer learning and fault injection attack that may happen during the system implementation procedure. Besides, they can accommodate the model transformations due to various DNN model compression methods used by the system designer.
  8. A critical aspect of autonomous vehicles (AVs) is the object detection stage, which is increasingly being performed with sensor fusion models: multimodal 3D object detection models which utilize both 2D RGB image data and 3D data from a LIDAR sensor as inputs. In this work, we perform the first study to analyze the robustness of a high-performance, open source sensor fusion model architecture towards adversarial attacks and challenge the popular belief that the use of additional sensors automatically mitigate the risk of adversarial attacks. We find that despite the use of a LIDAR sensor, the model is vulnerable to our purposefully crafted image-based adversarial attacks including disappearance, universal patch, and spoofing. After identifying the underlying reason, we explore some potential defenses and provide some recommendations for improved sensor fusion models.
  9. Automated Lane Centering (ALC) systems are convenient and widely deployed today, but also highly security and safety critical. In this work, we are the first to systematically study the security of state-of-the-art deep learning based ALC systems in their designed operational domains under physical-world adversarial attacks. We formulate the problem with a safetycritical attack goal, and a novel and domain-specific attack vector: dirty road patches. To systematically generate the attack, we adopt an optimization-based approach and overcome domain-specific design challenges such as camera frame interdependencies due to attack-influenced vehicle control, and the lack of objective function design for lane detection models. We evaluate our attack on a production ALC using 80 scenarios from real-world driving traces. The results show that our attack is highly effective with over 97.5% success rates and less than 0.903 sec average success time, which is substantially lower than the average driver reaction time. This attack is also found (1) robust to various real-world factors such as lighting conditions and view angles, (2) general to different model designs, and (3) stealthy from the driver’s view. To understand the safety impacts, we conduct experiments using software-in-the-loop simulation and attack trace injection in a real vehicle. The resultsmore »show that our attack can cause a 100% collision rate in different scenarios, including when tested with common safety features such as automatic emergency braking. We also evaluate and discuss defenses.« less
  10. In Autonomous Driving (AD) systems, perception is both security and safety critical. Despite various prior studies on its security issues, all of them only consider attacks on cameraor LiDAR-based AD perception alone. However, production AD systems today predominantly adopt a Multi-Sensor Fusion (MSF) based design, which in principle can be more robust against these attacks under the assumption that not all fusion sources are (or can be) attacked at the same time. In this paper, we present the first study of security issues of MSF-based perception in AD systems. We directly challenge the basic MSF design assumption above by exploring the possibility of attacking all fusion sources simultaneously. This allows us for the first time to understand how much security guarantee MSF can fundamentally provide as a general defense strategy for AD perception. We formulate the attack as an optimization problem to generate a physically-realizable, adversarial 3D-printed object that misleads an AD system to fail in detecting it and thus crash into it. To systematically generate such a physical-world attack, we propose a novel attack pipeline that addresses two main design challenges: (1) non-differentiable target camera and LiDAR sensing systems, and (2) non-differentiable cell-level aggregated features popularly used in LiDAR-basedmore »AD perception. We evaluate our attack on MSF algorithms included in representative open-source industry-grade AD systems in real-world driving scenarios. Our results show that the attack achieves over 90% success rate across different object types and MSF algorithms. Our attack is also found stealthy, robust to victim positions, transferable across MSF algorithms, and physical-world realizable after being 3D-printed and captured by LiDAR and camera devices. To concretely assess the end-to-end safety impact, we further perform simulation evaluation and show that it can cause a 100% vehicle collision rate for an industry-grade AD system. We also evaluate and discuss defense strategies.« less