Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) promote endogenous tissue regeneration and have become a promising candidate for cell therapy. However, in vitro culture expansion of hMSCs induces a rapid decline of stem cell properties through replicative senescence. Here, we characterize metabolic profiles of hMSCs during expansion. We show that alterations of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + /NADH) redox balance and activity of the Sirtuin (Sirt) family enzymes regulate cellular senescence of hMSCs. Treatment with NAD + precursor nicotinamide increases the intracellular NAD + level and re-balances the NAD + /NADH ratio, with enhanced Sirt-1 activity in hMSCs at high passage, partially restores mitochondrial fitness and rejuvenates senescent hMSCs. By contrast, human fibroblasts exhibit limited senescence as their cellular NAD + /NADH balance is comparatively stable during expansion. These results indicate a potential metabolic and redox connection to replicative senescence in adult stem cells and identify NAD + as a metabolic regulator that distinguishes stem cells from mature cells. This study also suggests potential strategies to maintain cellular homeostasis of hMSCs in clinical applications.
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In Vitro Culture Expansion Shifts the Immune Phenotype of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem CellsHuman mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (hMSCs) are known for their potential in regenerative medicine due to their differentiation abilities, secretion of trophic factors, and regulation of immune responses in damaged tissues. Due to the limited quantity of hMSCs typically isolated from bone marrow, other tissue sources, such as adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs), are considered a promising alternative. However, differences have been observed for hASCs in the context of metabolic characteristics and response to in vitro culture stress compared to bone marrow derived hMSCs (BM-hMSCs). In particular, the relationship between metabolic homeostasis and stem cell functions, especially the immune phenotype and immunomodulation of hASCs, remains unknown. This study thoroughly assessed the changes in metabolism, redox cycles, and immune phenotype of hASCs during in vitro expansion. In contrast to BM-hMSCs, hASCs did not respond to culture stress significantly during expansion as limited cellular senescence was observed. Notably, hASCs exhibited the increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the decreased secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines after extended culture expansion. The NAD+/NADH redox cycle and other metabolic characteristics associated with aging were relatively stable, indicating that hASC functional decline may be regulated through an alternative mechanism rather than NAD+/Sirtuin aging pathways as observedmore »
Osteoporosis is a common bone and metabolic disease that is characterized by bone density loss and microstructural degeneration. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells with the potential to differentiate into various cell types, including osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, which have been utilized extensively in the field of bone tissue engineering and cell-based therapy. Although fluid shear stress plays an important role in bone osteogenic differentiation, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Here, a locked nucleic acid (LNA)/DNA nanobiosensor was exploited to monitor mRNA gene expression of hMSCs that were exposed to physiologically relevant fluid shear stress to examine the regulatory role of Notch signaling during osteogenic differentiation. First, the effects of fluid shear stress on cell viability, proliferation, morphology, and osteogenic differentiation were investigated and compared. Our results showed shear stress modulates hMSCs morphology and osteogenic differentiation depending on the applied shear and duration. By incorporating this LNA/DNA nanobiosensor and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, we further investigated the role of Notch signaling in regulating osteogenic differentiation. Pharmacological treatment is applied to disrupt Notch signaling to investigate the mechanisms that govern shear stress induced osteogenic differentiation. Our experimental results provide convincingmore »
Combined noninvasive metabolic and spindle imaging as potential tools for embryo and oocyte assessment
Abstract STUDY QUESTION
Is the combined use of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM)-based metabolic imaging and second harmonic generation (SHG) spindle imaging a feasible and safe approach for noninvasive embryo assessment?
Metabolic imaging can sensitively detect meaningful metabolic changes in embryos, SHG produces high-quality images of spindles and the methods do not significantly impair embryo viability.
WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY
Proper metabolism is essential for embryo viability. Metabolic imaging is a well-tested method for measuring metabolism of cells and tissues, but it is unclear if it is sensitive enough and safe enough for use in embryo assessment.
STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION
This study consisted of time-course experiments and control versus treatment experiments. We monitored the metabolism of 25 mouse oocytes with a noninvasive metabolic imaging system while exposing them to oxamate (cytoplasmic lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor) and rotenone (mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor) in series. Mouse embryos (n = 39) were measured every 2 h from the one-cell stage to blastocyst in order to characterize metabolic changes occurring during pre-implantation development. To assess the safety of FLIM illumination, n = 144 illuminated embryos were implanted into n = 12 mice, and n = 108 nonilluminated embryos were implanted into n = 9 mice.
PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS
Experiments were performed in mouse embryos and oocytes. Samples weremore »
MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE
Measured FLIM parameters were highly sensitive to metabolic changes due to both metabolic perturbations and embryo development. For oocytes, metabolic parameter values were compared before and after exposure to oxamate and rotenone. The metabolic measurements provided a basis for complete separation of the data sets. For embryos, metabolic parameter values were compared between the first division and morula stages, morula and blastocyst and first division and blastocyst. The metabolic measurements again completely separated the data sets. Exposure of embryos to excessive illumination dosages (24 measurements) had no significant effect on live birth rate (5.1 ± 0.94 pups/mouse for illuminated group; 5.7 ± 1.74 pups/mouse for control group) or pup weights (1.88 ± 0.10 g for illuminated group; 1.89 ± 0.11 g for control group).
LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION
The study was performed using a mouse model, so conclusions concerning sensitivity and safety may not generalize to human embryos. A limitation of the live birth data is also that although cages were routinely monitored, we could not preclude that some runt pups may have been eaten.
WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS
Promising proof-of-concept results demonstrate that FLIM with SHG provide detailed biological information that may be valuable for the assessment of embryo and oocyte quality. Live birth experiments support the method’s safety, arguing for further studies of the clinical utility of these techniques.
STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)
Supported by the Blavatnik Biomedical Accelerator Grant at Harvard University and by the Harvard Catalyst/The Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center (National Institutes of Health Award UL1 TR001102), by NSF grants DMR-0820484 and PFI-TT-1827309 and by NIH grant R01HD092550-01. T.S. was supported by a National Science Foundation Postdoctoral Research Fellowship in Biology grant (1308878). S.F. and S.A. were supported by NSF MRSEC DMR-1420382. Becker and Hickl GmbH sponsored the research with the loaning of equipment for FLIM. T.S. and D.N. are cofounders and shareholders of LuminOva, Inc., and co-hold patents (US20150346100A1 and US20170039415A1) for metabolic imaging methods. D.S. is on the scientific advisory board for Cooper Surgical and has stock options with LuminOva, Inc.
Probing Notch1-Dll4 signaling in regulating osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells using single cell nanobiosensor
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