skip to main content

Title: Effective prediction of short hydrogen bonds in proteins via machine learning method

Short hydrogen bonds (SHBs), whose donor and acceptor heteroatoms lie within 2.7 Å, exhibit prominent quantum mechanical characters and are connected to a wide range of essential biomolecular processes. However, exact determination of the geometry and functional roles of SHBs requires a protein to be at atomic resolution. In this work, we analyze 1260 high-resolution peptide and protein structures from the Protein Data Bank and develop a boosting based machine learning model to predict the formation of SHBs between amino acids. This model, which we name as machine learning assisted prediction of short hydrogen bonds (MAPSHB), takes into account 21 structural, chemical and sequence features and their interaction effects and effectively categorizes each hydrogen bond in a protein to a short or normal hydrogen bond. The MAPSHB model reveals that the type of the donor amino acid plays a major role in determining the class of a hydrogen bond and that the side chain Tyr-Asp pair demonstrates a significant probability of forming a SHB. Combining electronic structure calculations and energy decomposition analysis, we elucidate how the interplay of competing intermolecular interactions stabilizes the Tyr-Asp SHBs more than other commonly observed combinations of amino acid side chains. The MAPSHB model, which is freely available on our web server, allows one to accurately and efficiently predict the presence of SHBs given a protein structure with moderate or low resolution and will facilitate the experimental and computational refinement of protein structures.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Nature Publishing Group
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    There are continuous efforts to elucidate the structure and biological functions of short hydrogen bonds (SHBs), whose donor and acceptor heteroatoms reside more than 0.3 Å closer than the sum of their van der Waals radii. In this work, we evaluate 1070 atomic-resolution protein structures and characterize the common chemical features of SHBs formed between the side chains of amino acids and small molecule ligands. We then develop a machine learning assisted prediction of protein-ligand SHBs (MAPSHB-Ligand) model and reveal that the types of amino acids and ligand functional groups as well as the sequence of neighboring residues are essential factors that determine the class of protein-ligand hydrogen bonds. The MAPSHB-Ligand model and its implementation on our web server enable the effective identification of protein-ligand SHBs in proteins, which will facilitate the design of biomolecules and ligands that exploit these close contacts for enhanced functions.

    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    Hydrogen bonds (HBs) play an essential role in the structure and catalytic action of enzymes, but a complete understanding of HBs in proteins challenges the resolution of modern structural ( i.e. , X-ray diffraction) techniques and mandates computationally demanding electronic structure methods from correlated wavefunction theory for predictive accuracy. Numerous amino acid sidechains contain functional groups ( e.g. , hydroxyls in Ser/Thr or Tyr and amides in Asn/Gln) that can act as either HB acceptors or donors (HBA/HBD) and even form simultaneous, ambifunctional HB interactions. To understand the relative energetic benefit of each interaction, we characterize the potential energy surfaces of representative model systems with accurate coupled cluster theory calculations. To reveal the relationship of these energetics to the balance of these interactions in proteins, we curate a set of 4000 HBs, of which >500 are ambifunctional HBs, in high-resolution protein structures. We show that our model systems accurately predict the favored HB structural properties. Differences are apparent in HBA/HBD preference for aromatic Tyr versus aliphatic Ser/Thr hydroxyls because Tyr forms significantly stronger O–H⋯O HBs than N–H⋯O HBs in contrast to comparable strengths of the two for Ser/Thr. Despite this residue-specific distinction, all models of residue pairs indicate an energetic benefit for simultaneous HBA and HBD interactions in an ambifunctional HB. Although the stabilization is less than the additive maximum due both to geometric constraints and many-body electronic effects, a wide range of ambifunctional HB geometries are more favorable than any single HB interaction. 
    more » « less
  3. The three-dimensional architecture of biomolecules often creates specialized structural elements, notably short hydrogen bonds that have donor–acceptor separations below 2.7 Å. In this work, we statistically analyze 1663 high-resolution biomolecular structures from the Protein Data Bank and demonstrate that short hydrogen bonds are prevalent in proteins, protein–ligand complexes and nucleic acids. From these biological macromolecules, we characterize the preferred location, connectivity and amino acid composition in short hydrogen bonds and hydrogen bond networks, and assess their possible functional importance. Using electronic structure calculations, we further uncover how the interplay of the structural and chemical features determines the proton potential energy surfaces and proton sharing conditions in biological short hydrogen bonds. 
    more » « less
  4. Hydrogen bonds (HB)s are the most abundant motifs in biological systems. They play a key role in determining protein–ligand binding affinity and selectivity. We designed two pharmaceutically beneficial HB databases, database A including ca. 12,000 protein–ligand complexes with ca. 22,000 HBs and their geometries, and database B including ca. 400 protein–ligand complexes with ca. 2200 HBs, their geometries, and bond strengths determined via our local vibrational mode analysis. We identified seven major HB patterns, which can be utilized as a de novo QSAR model to predict the binding affinity for a specific protein–ligand complex. Glycine was reported as the most abundant amino acid residue in both donor and acceptor profiles, and N–H⋯O was the most frequent HB type found in database A. HBs were preferred to be in the linear range, and linear HBs were identified as the strongest. HBs with HB angles in the range of 100–110°, typically forming intramolecular five-membered ring structures, showed good hydrophobic properties and membrane permeability. Utilizing database B, we found a generalized Badger’s relationship for more than 2200 protein–ligand HBs. In addition, the strength and occurrence maps between each amino acid residue and ligand functional groups open an attractive possibility for a novel drug-design approach and for determining drug selectivity and affinity, and they can also serve as an important tool for the hit-to-lead process. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    The crystal structure of the complex of ribulose‐1,5‐bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco; EC fromArchaeoglobus fulgidus(afRubisco) with its products 3PGAs has been determined to a resolution of 1.7 Å and is of the closed form. Type III Rubiscos such as afRubisco have 18 out of the 19 essential amino acid residues of canonical Rubisco; the 19th is Tyr rather than Phe. Superposition with the structure of a complex of the similar tkRubisco with the six‐carbon intermediate analog 2CABP shows the same conformation of the 19 residues except for Glu46 and Thr51. Glu46 adopts a unique conformation different from that in other Rubiscos and makes two H‐bonds with the ligand 3PGA. Similar to other closed state Rubiscos, the backbone of Thr51 is rotated and the side chain makes an H‐bond with the ligand 3PGA. Two product 3PGA molecules are bound at the active site, overlapping well with the 2CABP of tkRubisco/2CABP. The positions of the P1 and P2 phosphate groups differ by 0.4 and 0.53 Å, respectively, between 2CABP and the two 3PGAs. This afRubisco/3PGA complex mimics an intermediate stage of the carboxylation reaction which occurs after the production of the two 3PGA products but before the reopening of the active site. The stability of this complex suggests that the Rubisco active site will not reopen before both 3PGA products are formed.

    more » « less