MXenes are a new family of two-dimensional carbides and/or nitrides. Their 2D surfaces are typically terminated by O, OH and/or F atoms. Here we show that Ti3C2T
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- 2D Materials
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- Article No. 035003
- IOP Publishing
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- National Science Foundation
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Green synthesis of reduced Ti 3 C 2 T x MXene nanosheets with enhanced conductivity, oxidation stability, and SERS activityTransition metal carbides (MXenes) are an emerging family of highly conductive two-dimensional materials with additional functional properties introduced by surface terminations. Further modification of the surface terminations makes MXenes even more appealing for practical applications. Herein, we report a facile and environmentally benign synthesis of reduced Ti 3 C 2 T x MXene (r-Ti 3 C 2 T x ) via a simple treatment with l -ascorbic acid at room temperature. r-Ti 3 C 2 T x shows a six-fold increase in electrical conductivity, from 471 ± 49 for regular Ti 3 C 2 T x to 2819 ± 306 S m −1 for the reduced version. Additionally, we show an enhanced oxidation stability of r-Ti 3 C 2 T x as compared to regular Ti 3 C 2 T x . An examination of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity reveals that the SERS enhancement factor of r-Ti 3 C 2 T x is an order of magnitude higher than that of regular Ti 3 C 2 T x . The improved SERS activity of r-Ti 3 C 2 T x is attributed to the charge transfer interaction between the MXene surface and probe molecules, re-enforced by an increasedmore »
Current advancements in battery technologies require electrodes to combine high-performance active materials such as Silicon (Si) with two-dimensional materials such as transition metal carbides (MXenes) for prolonged cycle stability and enhanced electrochemical performance. More so, it is the interface between these materials, which is the nexus for their applicatory success. Herein, the interface strength variations between amorphous Si and Ti 3 C 2 T x MXenes are determined as the MXene surface functional groups ( T x ) are changed using first principles calculations. Si is interfaced with three Ti 3 C 2 MXene substrates having surface −OH, −OH and −O mixed, and −F functional groups. Density functional theory (DFT) results reveal that completely hydroxylated Ti 3 C 2 has the highest interface strength of 0.6 J m −2 with amorphous Si. This interface strength value drops as the proportion of surface −O and −F groups increases. Additional analysis of electron redistribution and charge separation across the interface is provided for a complete understanding of underlying physico-chemical factors affecting the surface chemistry and resultant interface strength values. The presented comprehensive analysis of the interface aims to develop sophisticated MXene based electrodes by their targeted surface engineering.
Nanocomposite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) are promising materials for all-solid-state lithium metal batteries (LMBs) due to their enhanced ionic conductivities and stability to the lithium anode. MXenes are a new two-dimensional, 2D, family of early transition metal carbides and nitrides, which have a high aspect ratio and a hydrophilic surface. Herein, using a green, facile aqueous solution blending method, we uniformly dispersed small amounts of Ti 3 C 2 T x into a poly(ethylene oxide)/LiTFSI complex (PEO 20 -LiTFSI) to fabricate MXene-based CPEs (MCPEs). The addition of the 2D flakes to PEO simultaneously retards PEO crystallization and enhances its segmental motion. Compared to the 0D and 1D nanofillers, MXenes show higher efficiency in ionic conductivity enhancement and improvement in the performance of LMBs. The CPE with 3.6 wt% MXene shows the highest ionic conductivity at room temperature (2.2 × 10 −5 S m −1 at 28 °C). An LMB using MCPE with only 1.5 wt% MXene shows rate capability and stability comparable with that of the state-of-the-art CPELMBs. We attribute the excellent performance to the 2D geometry of the filler, the good dispersion of the flakes in the polymer matrix, and the functional group-rich surface.
Ti3C2Txbelongs to the family of MXenes, 2D materials with an attractive combination of functional properties suitable for applications such as batteries, supercapacitors, and strain sensors. However, the fabrication of devices and functional coatings based on Ti3C2Txremains challenging as they are prone to chemical degradation by their oxidation to TiO2. In this paper, we examine the oxidation of Ti3C2Txin air, liquid, and solid media via conductivity measurements to assess the shelf life of Ti3C2TxMXenes. The oxidation of Ti3C2Txwas observed in all the media used in this study, but it is fastest in liquid media and slowest in solid media (including polymer matrices). We also show that the conventional indicators of MXene oxidation, such as changes in color and colloidal stability, are not always reliable. Finally, we demonstrate the acceleration of oxidation under exposure to UV light.
Abstract 2D material hydrogels have recently sparked tremendous interest owing to their potential in diverse applications. However, research on the emerging 2D MXene hydrogels is still in its infancy. Herein, we show a universal 4D printing technology for manufacturing MXene hydrogels with customizable geometries, which suits a family of MXenes such as Nb 2 CT x , Ti 3 C 2 T x , and Mo 2 Ti 2 C 3 T x . The obtained MXene hydrogels offer 3D porous architectures, large specific surface areas, high electrical conductivities, and satisfying mechanical properties. Consequently, ultrahigh capacitance (3.32 F cm −2 (10 mV s −1 ) and 233 F g −1 (10 V s −1 )) and mass loading/thickness-independent rate capabilities are achieved. The further 4D-printed Ti 3 C 2 T x hydrogel micro-supercapacitors showcase great low-temperature tolerance (down to –20 °C) and deliver high energy and power densities up to 93 μWh cm −2 and 7 mW cm −2 , respectively, surpassing most state-of-the-art devices. This work brings new insights into MXene hydrogel manufacturing and expands the range of their potential applications.