skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Thursday, May 23 until 2:00 AM ET on Friday, May 24 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: A Generalized and Efficient Control-Oriented Modeling Approach for Vibration-Prone Delta 3D Printers Using Receptance Coupling
Delta 3D printers can significantly increase throughput in additive manufacturing by enabling faster and more precise motion compared to conventional serial-axis 3D printers. Further improvements in motion speed and part quality can be realized through model-based feedforward vibration control, as demonstrated on serial-axis 3D printers. However, delta machines have not benefited from model-based controllers because of the difficulty in accurately modeling their position-dependent, coupled nonlinear dynamics. In this paper, we propose an efficient framework to obtain accurate linear parameter-varying models of delta 3D printers at any position within their workspace from a few frequency response measurements. We decompose the dynamics into two sub-models–(1) an experimentally-identified sub-model containing decoupled vibration dynamics; and (2) an analytically-derived sub-model containing coupled dynamics–which are combined into one using receptance coupling. We generalize the framework by extending the analytical model of (2) to account for differing mass profiles and dynamic models of the printer’s end-effector. Experiments demonstrate reasonably accurate predictions of the position-dependent dynamics of a commercial delta printer, augmented with a direct drive extruder, at various positions in its workspace. Note to Practitioners—This work aims to equip high-speed 3D printers, like delta machines, with model-based controllers to complement their speed with high-accuracy. Due to the coupled kinematic chains of the delta, complex control methodologies, some of which require real-time state measurements, are often used to achieve satisfactory control performance. Our modeling approach provides an efficient methodology for obtaining accurate linear models without the need for real-time measurements, thus enabling practitioners to design linear model-based feedforward controllers to achieve the high throughput and accuracy desired in additive manufacturing (AM). The models we develop in this paper are intended for use with feedforward vibration compensation methods, which can be beneficial for both industrial-scale AM machines that have high-powered servo motors and feedback controllers, as well as consumer-grade AM machines which use stepper motors in feedforward control.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2054715
NSF-PAR ID:
10362797
Author(s) / Creator(s):
;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
ISSN:
1545-5955
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1 to 12
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. A hybrid filtered basis function (FBF) approach is proposed in this paper for feedforward tracking control of linear systems with unmodeled nonlinear dynamics. Unlike most available tracking control techniques, the FBF approach is very versatile; it is applicable to any type of linear system, regardless of its underlying dynamics. The FBF approach expresses the control input to a system as a linear combination of basis functions with unknown coefficients. The basis functions are forward filtered through a linear model of the system's dynamics and the unknown coefficients are selected such that tracking error is minimized. The linear models used in existing implementations of the FBF approach are typically physics-based representations of the linear dynamics of a system. The proposed hybrid FBF approach expands the application of the FBF approach to systems with unmodeled nonlinearities by learning from data. A hybrid model is formulated by combining a physics-based model of the system's linear dynamics with a data-driven linear model that approximates the unmodeled nonlinear dynamics. The hybrid model is used online in receding horizon to compute optimal control commands that minimize tracking errors. The proposed hybrid FBF approach is shown in simulations on a model of a vibration-prone 3D printer to improve tracking accuracy by up to 65.4%, compared to an existing FBF approach that does not incorporate data. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Automated optical inspection (AOI) is increasingly advocated for in situ quality monitoring of additive manufacturing (AM) processes. The availability of layerwise imaging data improves the information visibility during fabrication processes and is thus conducive to performing online certification. However, few, if any, have investigated the high-speed contact image sensors (CIS) (i.e., originally developed for document scanners and multifunction printers) for AM quality monitoring. In addition, layerwise images show complex patterns and often contain hidden information that cannot be revealed in a single scale. A new and alternative approach will be to analyze these intrinsic patterns with multiscale lenses. Therefore, the objective of this article is to design and develop an AOI system with contact image sensors for multiresolution quality inspection of layerwise builds in additive manufacturing. First, we retrofit the AOI system with contact image sensors in industrially relevant 95 mm/s scanning speed to a laser-powder-bed-fusion (LPBF) machines. Then, we design the experiments to fabricate nine parts under a variety of factor levels (e.g., gas flow blockage, re-coater damage, laser power changes). In each layer, the AOI system collects imaging data of both recoating powder beds before the laser fusion and surface finishes after the laser fusion. Second, layerwise images are pre-preprocessed for alignment, registration, and identification of regions of interests (ROIs) of these nine parts. Then, we leverage the wavelet transformation to analyze ROI images in multiple scales and further extract salient features that are sensitive to process variations, instead of extraneous noises. Third, we perform the paired comparison analysis to investigate how different levels of factors influence the distribution of wavelet features. Finally, these features are shown to be effective in predicting the extent of defects in the computed tomography (CT) data of layerwise AM builds. The proposed framework of multiresolution quality inspection is evaluated and validated using real-world AM imaging data. Experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed AOI system with contact image sensors for online quality inspection of layerwise builds in AM processes.

     
    more » « less
  3. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Aerosol jet printing (AJP) is a direct-write additive manufacturing technique, which has emerged as a high-resolution method for the fabrication of a broad spectrum of electronic devices. Despite the advantages and critical applications of AJP in the printed-electronics industry, AJP process is intrinsically unstable, complex, and prone to unexpected gradual drifts, which adversely affect the morphology and consequently the functional performance of a printed electronic device. Therefore, in situ process monitoring and control in AJP is an inevitable need. In this respect, in addition to experimental characterization of the AJP process, physical models would be required to explain the underlying aerodynamic phenomena in AJP. The goal of this research work is to establish a physics-based computational platform for prediction of aerosol flow regimes and ultimately, physics-driven control of the AJP process. In pursuit of this goal, the objective is to forward a three-dimensional (3D) compressible, turbulent, multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to investigate the aerodynamics behind: (i) aerosol generation, (ii) aerosol transport, and (iii) aerosol deposition on a moving free surface in the AJP process. The complex geometries of the deposition head as well as the pneumatic atomizer were modeled in the ansys-fluent environment, based on patented designs in addition to accurate measurements, obtained from 3D X-ray micro-computed tomography (μ-CT) imaging. The entire volume of the constructed geometries was subsequently meshed using a mixture of smooth and soft quadrilateral elements, with consideration of layers of inflation to obtain an accurate solution near the walls. A combined approach, based on the density-based and pressure-based Navier–Stokes formation, was adopted to obtain steady-state solutions and to bring the conservation imbalances below a specified linearization tolerance (i.e., 10−6). Turbulence was modeled using the realizable k-ε viscous model with scalable wall functions. A coupled two-phase flow model was, in addition, set up to track a large number of injected particles. The boundary conditions of the CFD model were defined based on experimental sensor data, recorded from the AJP control system. The accuracy of the model was validated using a factorial experiment, composed of AJ-deposition of a silver nanoparticle ink on a polyimide substrate. The outcomes of this study pave the way for the implementation of physics-driven in situ monitoring and control of AJP. 
    more » « less
  4. M. Wiercigroch, editof-in-chief (Ed.)
    Additive manufacturing (AM) is known to generate large magnitudes of residual stresses (RS) within builds due to steep and localized thermal gradients. In the current state of commercial AM technology, manufacturers generally perform heat treatments in effort to reduce the generated RS and its detrimental effects on part distortion and in-service failure. Computational models that effectively simulate the deposition process can provide valuable insights to improve RS distributions. Accordingly, it is common to employ Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models or finite element (FE) models. While CFD can predict geometric and thermal fluid behavior, it cannot predict the structural response (e.g., stress–strain) behavior. On the other hand, an FE model can predict mechanical behavior, but it lacks the ability to predict geometric and fluid behavior. Thus, an effectively integrated thermofluidic–thermomechanical modeling framework that exploits the benefits of both techniques while avoiding their respective limitations can offer valuable predictive capability for AM processes. In contrast to previously published efforts, the work herein describes a one-way coupled CFDFEA framework that abandons major simplifying assumptions, such as geometric steady-state conditions, the absence of material plasticity, and the lack of detailed RS evolution/accumulation during deposition, as well as insufficient validation of results. The presented framework is demonstrated for a directed energy deposition (DED) process, and experiments are performed to validate the predicted geometry and RS profile. Both single- and double-layer stainless steel 316L builds are considered. Geometric data is acquired via 3D optical surface scans and X-ray micro-computed tomography, and residual stress is measured using neutron diffraction (ND). Comparisons between the simulations and measurements reveal that the described CFD-FEA framework is effective in capturing the coupled thermomechanical and thermofluidic behaviors of the DED process. The methodology presented is extensible to other metal AM processes, including power bed fusion and wire-feed-based AM. 
    more » « less
  5. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing is a popular control system testing method because it bridges the gap between modeling/simulation and experiments. Instead of designing a full hardware-based experiment to validate the results of a simulation, the plant hardware can be replaced with an emulator device that responds to exogenous inputs and effectively emulates the dynamic behavior of a system. This approach can be more cost-effective and modular, since the emulated plant system can be modeled in a simulation environment, implemented on a simplified piece of hardware and changed quickly without having to fabricate new parts. This paper develops the hardware and control scheme for a certain type of HIL device called a dynamic load emulator that consists of a 1-DOF linear hydraulic dynamometer equipped with in-line sensing to measure both its own position and the force exerted on it by a device-under-test. This measured force is passed to a real-time model of the emulated dynamic system. The model outputs the emulated system position, and a closed-loop controller is used to emulate this position. The emulator controller incorporates both model-based feedforward and standard feedback PI control. This paper characterizes the dynamometer-based dynamic load emulator and its controller, determining its hardware limitations and validating its capabilities when experiencing a force input from a linear spring with known parameters. Additionally, this paper demonstrates the ability of the emulator to represent the dynamics of a 1-DOF robotic joint when actuated by a pair of fluidic artificial muscles (FAMs). The primary contribution of this work is to allow for more comprehensive testing of FAM configurations, topologies, and controllers for a wide range of parameters, because the same hardware can be used to emulate multiple systems. As a result, this work will lead to more cost-effective, time-efficient, and energy-efficient designs of robotic systems and the FAMs used to actuate them.

     
    more » « less