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Title: Environmental fluctuations dampen the effects of clonal reproduction on evolutionary rescue
Abstract

Evolutionary rescue occurs when genetic change allows a population to persist in response to an environmental change that would otherwise have led to extinction. Most studies of evolutionary rescue assume that species have either fully clonal or fully sexual reproduction; however, many species have partially clonal reproductive strategies in which they reproduce both clonally and sexually. Furthermore, the few evolutionary rescue studies that have evaluated partially clonal reproduction did not consider fluctuations in the environment, which are nearly ubiquitous in nature. Here, we use individual‐based simulations to investigate how environmental fluctuations (either uncorrelated or positively autocorrelated) influence the effect of clonality on evolutionary rescue. We show that, for moderate magnitudes of environmental fluctuations, as was found in the absence of fluctuations, increasing the degree of clonality increases the probability of population persistence in response to an abrupt environmental change, but decreases persistence in response to a continuous, directional environmental change. However, with large magnitudes of fluctuations, both the benefits of clonality following a step change and the detrimental effects of clonality following a continuous, directional change are generally reduced; in fact, in the latter scenario, increasing clonality can even become beneficial if environmental fluctuations are autocorrelated. We also show that increased generational overlap dampens the effects of environmental fluctuations. Overall, we demonstrate that understanding the evolutionary rescue of partially clonal organisms requires not only knowledge of the species life history and the type of environmental change, but also an understanding of the magnitude and autocorrelation of environmental fluctuations.

 
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Award ID(s):
1923495 1923513
NSF-PAR ID:
10362819
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Oxford University Press
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Volume:
34
Issue:
4
ISSN:
1010-061X
Format(s):
Medium: X Size: p. 710-722
Size(s):
["p. 710-722"]
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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