skip to main content

Title: Dark Energy Survey Year 3 results: galaxy clustering and systematics treatment for lens galaxy samples

In this work, we present the galaxy clustering measurements of the two DES lens galaxy samples: a magnitude-limited sample optimized for the measurement of cosmological parameters, maglim, and a sample of luminous red galaxies selected with the redmagic algorithm. maglim/redmagic sample contains over 10 million/2.5 million galaxies and is divided into six/five photometric redshift bins spanning the range z ∈ [0.20, 1.05]/z ∈ [0.15, 0.90]. Both samples cover 4143 $\deg ^2$ over which we perform our analysis blind, measuring the angular correlation function with an S/N ∼ 63 for both samples. In a companion paper, these measurements of galaxy clustering are combined with the correlation functions of cosmic shear and galaxy–galaxy lensing of each sample to place cosmological constraints with a 3 × 2pt analysis. We conduct a thorough study of the mitigation of systematic effects caused by the spatially varying survey properties and we correct the measurements to remove artificial clustering signals. We employ several decontamination methods with different configurations to ensure the robustness of our corrections and to determine the systematic uncertainty that needs to be considered for the final cosmology analyses. We validate our fiducial methodology using lognormal mocks, showing that our decontamination procedure induces biases no greater more » than 0.5σ in the (Ωm, b) plane, where b is the galaxy bias.

« less
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  more » ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;   « less
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
p. 2665-2687
Oxford University Press
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this

    The combination of galaxy–galaxy lensing (GGL) and galaxy clustering is a powerful probe of low-redshift matter clustering, especially if it is extended to the non-linear regime. To this end, we use an N-body and halo occupation distribution (HOD) emulator method to model the redMaGiC sample of colour-selected passive galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey (DES), adding parameters that describe central galaxy incompleteness, galaxy assembly bias, and a scale-independent multiplicative lensing bias Alens. We use this emulator to forecast cosmological constraints attainable from the GGL surface density profile ΔΣ(rp) and the projected galaxy correlation function wp, gg(rp) in the final (Year 6) DES data set over scales $r_p=0.3\!-\!30.0\, h^{-1} \, \mathrm{Mpc}$. For a $3{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ prior on Alens we forecast precisions of $1.9{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$, $2.0{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$, and $1.9{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ on Ωm, σ8, and $S_8 \equiv \sigma _8\Omega _m^{0.5}$, marginalized over all halo occupation distribution (HOD) parameters as well as Alens. Adding scales $r_p=0.3\!-\!3.0\, h^{-1} \, \mathrm{Mpc}$ improves the S8 precision by a factor of ∼1.6 relative to a large scale ($3.0\!-\!30.0\, h^{-1} \, \mathrm{Mpc}$) analysis, equivalent to increasing the survey area by a factor of ∼2.6. Sharpening the Alens prior to $1{{\more »\rm per\ cent}}$ further improves the S8 precision to $1.1{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$, and it amplifies the gain from including non-linear scales. Our emulator achieves per cent-level accuracy similar to the projected DES statistical uncertainties, demonstrating the feasibility of a fully non-linear analysis. Obtaining precise parameter constraints from multiple galaxy types and from measurements that span linear and non-linear clustering offers many opportunities for internal cross-checks, which can diagnose systematics and demonstrate the robustness of cosmological results.

    « less

    We describe our non-linear emulation (i.e. interpolation) framework that combines the halo occupation distribution (HOD) galaxy bias model with N-body simulations of non-linear structure formation, designed to accurately predict the projected clustering and galaxy–galaxy lensing signals from luminous red galaxies in the redshift range 0.16 < z < 0.36 on comoving scales 0.6 < rp < 30 $h^{-1} \, \text{Mpc}$. The interpolation accuracy is ≲ 1–2 per cent across the entire physically plausible range of parameters for all scales considered. We correctly recover the true value of the cosmological parameter S8 = (σ8/0.8228)(Ωm/0.3107)0.6 from mock measurements produced via subhalo abundance matching (SHAM)-based light-cones designed to approximately match the properties of the SDSS LOWZ galaxy sample. Applying our model to Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release 14 (DR14) LOWZ galaxy clustering and galaxy-shear cross-correlation measurements made with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8) imaging, we perform a prototype cosmological analysis marginalizing over wCDM cosmological parameters and galaxy HOD parameters. We obtain a 4.4 per cent measurement of S8 = 0.847 ± 0.037, in 3.5σ tension with the Planck cosmological results of 1.00 ± 0.02. We discuss the possibility of underestimated systematic uncertainties or astrophysical effects that could explain this discrepancy.

  3. We measured the cross-correlation between galaxy weak lensing data from the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS-1000, DR4) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT, DR4) and the Planck Legacy survey. We used two samples of source galaxies, selected with photometric redshifts, (0.1 <  z B  < 1.2) and (1.2 <  z B  < 2), which produce a combined detection significance of the CMB lensing and weak galaxy lensing cross-spectrum of 7.7 σ . With the lower redshift galaxy sample, for which the cross-correlation was detected at a significance of 5.3 σ , we present joint cosmological constraints on the matter density parameter, Ω m , and the matter fluctuation amplitude parameter, σ 8 , marginalising over three nuisance parameters that model our uncertainty in the redshift and shear calibration as well as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies. We find our measurement to be consistent with the best-fitting flat ΛCDM cosmological models from both Planck and KiDS-1000. We demonstrate the capacity of CMB weak lensing cross-correlations to set constraints on either the redshift or shear calibration by analysing a previously unused high-redshift KiDS galaxy sample (1.2 <  z B  < 2), with the cross-correlation detected at a significance of 7 σ .more »This analysis provides an independent assessment for the accuracy of redshift measurements in a regime that is challenging to calibrate directly owing to known incompleteness in spectroscopic surveys.« less
  4. Abstract

    Applying halo models to analyze the small-scale clustering of galaxies is a proven method for characterizing the connection between galaxies and their host halos. Such works are often plagued by systematic errors or limited to clustering statistics that can be predicted analytically. In this work, we employ a numerical mock-based modeling procedure to examine the clustering of Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 galaxies. We apply a standard halo occupation distribution (HOD) model to dark matter only simulations with a ΛCDM cosmology. To constrain the theoreStical models, we utilize a combination of galaxy number density and selected scales of the projected correlation function, redshift-space correlation function, group multiplicity function, average group velocity dispersion, mark correlation function, and counts-in-cells statistics. We design an algorithm to choose an optimal combination of measurements that yields tight and accurate constraints on our model parameters. Compared to previous work using fewer clustering statistics, we find a significant improvement in the constraints on all parameters of our halo model for two different luminosity-threshold galaxy samples. Most interestingly, we obtain unprecedented high-precision constraints on the scatter in the relationship between galaxy luminosity and halo mass. However, our best-fit model results in significant tension (>4σ) for both samples,more »indicating the need to add second-order features to the standard HOD model. To guarantee the robustness of these results, we perform an extensive analysis of the systematic and statistical errors in our modeling procedure, including a first of its kind study of the sensitivity of our constraints to changes in the halo mass function due to baryonic physics.

    « less
  5. ABSTRACT Galaxy–galaxy lensing is a powerful probe of the connection between galaxies and their host dark matter haloes, which is important both for galaxy evolution and cosmology. We extend the measurement and modelling of the galaxy–galaxy lensing signal in the recent Dark Energy Survey Year 3 cosmology analysis to the highly non-linear scales (∼100 kpc). This extension enables us to study the galaxy–halo connection via a Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) framework for the two lens samples used in the cosmology analysis: a luminous red galaxy sample (redmagic) and a magnitude-limited galaxy sample (maglim). We find that redmagic (maglim) galaxies typically live in dark matter haloes of mass log10(Mh/M⊙) ≈ 13.7 which is roughly constant over redshift (13.3−13.5 depending on redshift). We constrain these masses to ${\sim}15{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$, approximately 1.5 times improvement over the previous work. We also constrain the linear galaxy bias more than five times better than what is inferred by the cosmological scales only. We find the satellite fraction for redmagic (maglim) to be ∼0.1−0.2 (0.1−0.3) with no clear trend in redshift. Our constraints on these halo properties are broadly consistent with other available estimates from previous work, large-scale constraints, and simulations. The framework built in this paper willmore »be used for future HOD studies with other galaxy samples and extensions for cosmological analyses.« less