Carrier mobility in doped conjugated polymers is limited by Coulomb interactions with dopant counterions. This complicates studying the effect of the dopant's oxidation potential on carrier generation because different dopants have different Coulomb interactions with polarons on the polymer backbone. Here, dodecaborane (DDB)‐based dopants are used, which electrostatically shield counterions from carriers and have tunable redox potentials at constant size and shape. DDB dopants produce mobile carriers due to spatial separation of the counterion, and those with greater energetic offsets produce more carriers. Neutron reflectometry indicates that dopant infiltration into conjugated polymer films is redox‐potential‐driven. Remarkably, X‐ray scattering shows that despite their large 2‐nm size, DDBs intercalate into the crystalline polymer lamellae like small molecules, indicating that this is the preferred location for dopants of any size. These findings elucidate why doping conjugated polymers usually produces integer, rather than partial charge transfer: dopant counterions effectively intercalate into the lamellae, far from the polarons on the polymer backbone. Finally, it is shown that the IR spectrum provides a simple way to determine polaron mobility. Overall, higher oxidation potentials lead to higher doping efficiencies, with values reaching 100% for driving forces sufficient to dope poorly crystalline regions of the film.
The addition of nanoparticles to a polymer matrix can in certain cases induce a reduction in viscosity, with respect to the pure matrix, in the resulting composites. This counterintuitive phenomenon cannot be explained using the most common rheological models. For this reason, it has been chosen as a good example in this paper to demonstrate the value and methods of dynamic X‐ray and neutron scattering techniques for the investigation of polymer nanocomposites. An overview of the main results on this topic is presented together with an introduction to the basic concepts relating to X‐ray photon correlation spectroscopy, neutron backscattering, and neutron spin echo measurements.more » « less
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Journal of Polymer Science
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- p. 1130-1150
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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