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Title: Biomineralized Materials as Model Systems for Structural Composites: Intracrystalline Structural Features and Their Strengthening and Toughening Mechanisms

Biomineralized composites, which are usually composed of microscopic mineral building blocks organized in 3D intercrystalline organic matrices, have evolved unique structural designs to fulfill mechanical and other biological functionalities. While it has been well recognized that the intricate architectural designs of biomineralized composites contribute to their remarkable mechanical performance, the structural features within and corresponding mechanical properties of individual mineral building blocks are often less appreciated in the context of bio‐inspired structural composites. The mineral building blocks in biomineralized composites exhibit a variety of salient intracrystalline structural features, such as, organic inclusions, inorganic impurities (or trace elements), crystalline features (e.g., amorphous phases, single crystals, splitting crystals, polycrystals, and nanograins), residual stress/strain, and twinning, which significantly modify the mechanical properties of biogenic minerals. In this review, recent progress in elucidating the intracrystalline structural features of three most common biomineral systems (calcite, aragonite, and hydroxyapatite) and their corresponding mechanical significance are discussed. Future research directions and corresponding challenges are proposed and discussed, such as the advanced structural characterizations and formation mechanisms of intracrystalline structures in biominerals, amorphous biominerals, and bio‐inspired synthesis.

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Award ID(s):
1825646 1942865
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Advanced Science
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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