Shocked jets in CCSNe can power the zoo of fast blue optical transients
ABSTRACT

Evidence is mounting that recent multiwavelength detections of fast blue optical transients (FBOTs) in star-forming galaxies comprise a new class of transients, whose origin is yet to be understood. We show that hydrogen-rich collapsing stars that launch relativistic jets near the central engine can naturally explain the entire set of FBOT observables. The jet–star interaction forms a mildly relativistic shocked jet (inner cocoon) component, which powers cooling emission that dominates the high velocity optical signal during the first few weeks, with a typical energy of ∼1050–1051 erg. During this time, the cocoon radial energy distribution implies that the optical light curve exhibits a fast decay of $L \,\, \buildrel\propto \over \sim \,\,t^{-2.4}$. After a few weeks, when the velocity of the emitting shell is ∼0.01 c, the cocoon becomes transparent, and the cooling envelope governs the emission. The interaction between the cocoon and the dense circumstellar winds generates synchrotron self-absorbed emission in the radio bands, featuring a steady rise on a month time-scale. After a few months the relativistic outflow decelerates, enters the observer’s line of sight, and powers the peak of the radio light curve, which rapidly decays thereafter. The jet (and the inner cocoon) becomes optically thin more »

Authors:
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Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10367346
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume:
513
Issue:
3
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
p. 3810-3817
ISSN:
0035-8711
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
4. ABSTRACT We report on Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of the fast and blue optical transient (FBOT), AT 2018cow. At ∼62 Mpc, AT 2018cow is the first relatively nearby FBOT. The nature of AT 2018cow is not clear, although various hypotheses from a tidal disruption event to different kinds of supernovae have been suggested. It had a very fast rise time (3.5 d) and an almost featureless blue spectrum, although high photospheric velocities (40 000 km s−1) were suggested early on. The X-ray luminosity was very high, ∼1.4 × 1043 erg s−1, larger than those of ordinary supernovae (SNe), and more consistent with those of SNe associated with gamma-ray bursts. Variable hard X-ray emission hints at a long-lived ‘central engine.’ It was also fairly radio luminous, with a peak 8.4-GHz spectral luminosity of ∼4 × 1028 erg s−1 Hz−1, allowing us to make VLBI observations at ages between 22 and 287 d. We do not resolve AT 2018cow. Assuming a circularly symmetric source, our observations constrain the average apparent expansion velocity to be ${\lt}0.49\, c$ by t = 98 d (3σ limit). We also constrain the proper motion of AT 2018cow to be ${\lt}0.51\, c$. Since the radio emission generally traces the fastest ejecta, our observations make the presence of a long-lived relativistic jet with a lifetime of more than 1 monthmore »
We present a combined radio/X-ray study of six massive galaxy clusters, aimed at determining the potential for heating of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) by non-central radio galaxies. Since X-ray cavities associated with the radio lobes of non-central galaxies are generally not detectable, we use Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope 610 MHz observations to identify jet sources and estimate their size, and Chandra data to estimate the pressure of the surrounding ICM. In the radio, we detect 4.5 per cent of galaxies above the spectroscopic survey limit (M$^{*}_{K}$ + 2.0) of the Arizona cluster redshift survey (ACReS) that covers five of our six clusters. Approximately one-tenth of these are extended radio sources. Using star formation (SF) rates determined from mid-infrared data, we estimate the expected contribution to radio luminosity from the stellar population of each galaxy, and find that most of the unresolved or poorly resolved radio sources are likely SF dominated. The relatively low frequency and good spatial resolution of our radio data allows us to trace SF emission down to galaxies of stellar mass ∼10 9.5 M⊙. We estimate the enthalpy of the (AGN-dominated) jet/lobe and tailed sources, and place limits on the energy available from unresolved radio jets. We find jet powers inmore »