skip to main content

Title: Near-infrared Accretion Signatures from the Circumbinary Planetary-mass Companion Delorme 1 (AB)b*

Accretion signatures from bound brown dwarf and protoplanetary companions provide evidence for ongoing planet formation, and accreting substellar objects have enabled new avenues to study the astrophysical mechanisms controlling the formation and accretion processes. Delorme 1 (AB)b, a ∼30–45 Myr circumbinary planetary-mass companion, was recently discovered to exhibit strong Hαemission. This suggests ongoing accretion from a circumplanetary disk, somewhat surprising given canonical gas disk dispersal timescales of 5–10 Myr. Here, we present the first NIR detection of accretion from the companion in Paβ, Paγ, and Brγemission lines from SOAR/TripleSpec 4.1, confirming and further informing its accreting nature. The companion shows strong line emission, withLline≈ 1–6 × 10−8Lacross lines and epochs, while the binary host system shows no NIR hydrogen line emission (Lline< 0.32–11 × 10−7L). Observed NIR hydrogen line ratios are more consistent with a planetary accretion shock than with local line excitation models commonly used to interpret stellar magnetospheric accretion. Using planetary accretion shock models, we derive mass accretion rate estimates ofṀpla3–4 × 10−8MJyr−1, somewhat higher than expected under the standard star formation paradigm. Delorme 1 (AB)b’s high accretion rate is perhaps more consistent with formation via disk fragmentation. Delorme 1 (AB)b is the more » first protoplanet candidate with clear (signal-to-noise ratio ∼5) NIR hydrogen line emission.

« less
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal Letters
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Article No. L18
DOI PREFIX: 10.3847
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We use ALMA observations of CO(2–1) in 13 massive (M*≳ 1011M) poststarburst galaxies atz∼ 0.6 to constrain the molecular gas content in galaxies shortly after they quench their major star-forming episode. The poststarburst galaxies in this study are selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic samples (Data Release 14) based on their spectral shapes, as part of the Studying QUenching at Intermediate-z Galaxies: Gas, anguLarmomentum, and Evolution (SQuIGGLE) program. Early results showed that two poststarburst galaxies host large H2reservoirs despite their low inferred star formation rates (SFRs). Here we expand this analysis to a larger statistical sample of 13 galaxies. Six of the primary targets (45%) are detected, withMH2109M. Given their high stellar masses, this mass limit corresponds to an average gas fraction offH2MH2/M*7%or ∼14% using lower stellar masses estimates derived from analytic, exponentially declining star formation histories. The gas fraction correlates with theDn4000 spectral index, suggesting that the cold gas reservoirs decrease with time since burst, as found in local K+A galaxies. Star formation histories derived from flexible stellar population synthesis modeling support thismore »empirical finding: galaxies that quenched ≲150 Myr prior to observation host detectable CO(2–1) emission, while older poststarburst galaxies are undetected. The large H2reservoirs and low SFRs in the sample imply that the quenching of star formation precedes the disappearance of the cold gas reservoirs. However, within the following 100–200 Myr, theSQuIGGLEgalaxies require the additional and efficient heating or removal of cold gas to bring their low SFRs in line with standard H2scaling relations.

    « less
  2. Abstract

    Many core-collapse supernovae (SNe) with hydrogen-poor and low-mass ejecta, such as ultra-stripped SNe and type Ibn SNe, are observed to interact with dense circumstellar material (CSM). These events likely arise from the core collapse of helium stars that have been heavily stripped by a binary companion and have ejected significant mass during the last weeks to years of their lives. In helium star models run to days before core collapse we identify a range of helium core masses ≈2.5–3Mwhose envelopes expand substantially due to the helium shell burning while the core undergoes neon and oxygen burning. When modeled in binary systems, the rapid expansion of these helium stars induces extremely high rates of late-stage mass transfer (Ṁ102Myr1) beginning weeks to decades before core collapse. We consider two scenarios for producing CSM in these systems: either mass transfer remains stable and mass loss is driven from the system in the vicinity of the accreting companion, or mass transfer becomes unstable and causes a common envelope event (CEE) through which the helium envelope is unbound. The ensuing CSM properties are consistent with the CSM masses (∼10−2–1M) and radii (∼1013–1016cm) inferred for ultra-stripped SNe and severalmore »type Ibn SNe. Furthermore, systems that undergo a CEE could produce short-period neutron star binaries that merge in less than 100 Myr.

    « less
  3. Abstract

    We present a toy model for the thermal optical/UV/X-ray emission from tidal disruption events (TDEs). Motivated by recent hydrodynamical simulations, we assume that the debris streams promptly and rapidly circularize (on the orbital period of the most tightly bound debris), generating a hot quasi-spherical pressure-supported envelope of radiusRv∼ 1014cm (photosphere radius ∼1015cm) surrounding the supermassive black hole (SMBH). As the envelope cools radiatively, it undergoes Kelvin–Helmholtz contractionRvt−1, its temperature risingTefft1/2while its total luminosity remains roughly constant; the optical luminosity decays asνLνRv2Tefft3/2. Despite this similarity to the mass fallback rateṀfbt5/3, envelope heating from fallback accretion is subdominant compared to the envelope cooling luminosity except near optical peak (where they are comparable). Envelope contraction can be delayed by energy injection from accretion from the inner envelope onto the SMBH in a regulated manner, leading to a late-time flattening of the optical/X-ray light curves, similar to those observed in some TDEs. Eventually, as the envelope contracts to near the circularization radius, the SMBH accretion rate rises to its maximum, in tandem with the decreasing optical luminosity. This cooling-induced (rather than circularization-induced) delay of up to several hundred days may account for themore »delayed onset of thermal X-rays, late-time radio flares, and high-energy neutrino generation, observed in some TDEs. We compare the model predictions to recent TDE light-curve correlation studies, finding both agreement and points of tension.

    « less
  4. Abstract

    State transitions in black hole X-ray binaries are likely caused by gas evaporation from a thin accretion disk into a hot corona. We present a height-integrated version of this process, which is suitable for analytical and numerical studies. With radiusrscaled to Schwarzschild units and coronal mass accretion rateṁcto Eddington units, the results of the model are independent of black hole mass. State transitions should thus be similar in X-ray binaries and an active galactic nucleus. The corona solution consists of two power-law segments separated at a break radiusrb∼ 103(α/0.3)−2, whereαis the viscosity parameter. Gas evaporates from the disk to the corona forr>rb, and condenses back forr<rb. Atrb,ṁcreaches its maximum,ṁc,max0.02(α/0.3)3. If atrrbthe thin disk accretes withṁd<ṁc,max, then the disk evaporates fully before reachingrb, giving the hard state. Otherwise, the disk survives at all radii, giving the thermal state. While the basic model considers only bremsstrahlung cooling and viscous heating, we also discuss a more realistic model that includes Compton cooling and direct coronal heating by energy transport from the disk. Solutions are again independent of black hole mass, andrbremainsmore »unchanged. This model predicts strong coronal winds forr>rb, and aT∼ 5 × 108K Compton-cooled corona forr<rb. Two-temperature effects are ignored, but may be important at small radii.

    « less
  5. Abstract

    Recently, the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) has produced the experiment’s first upper limits on the power spectrum of 21 cm fluctuations atz∼ 8 and 10. Here, we use several independent theoretical models to infer constraints on the intergalactic medium (IGM) and galaxies during the epoch of reionization from these limits. We find that the IGM must have been heated above the adiabatic-cooling threshold byz∼ 8, independent of uncertainties about IGM ionization and the radio background. Combining HERA limits with complementary observations constrains the spin temperature of thez∼ 8 neutral IGM to 27 KT¯S630 K (2.3 KT¯S640 K) at 68% (95%) confidence. They therefore also place a lower bound on X-ray heating, a previously unconstrained aspects of early galaxies. For example, if the cosmic microwave background dominates thez∼ 8 radio background, the new HERA limits imply that the first galaxies produced X-rays more efficiently than local ones. Thez∼ 10 limits require even earlier heating if dark-matter interactions cool the hydrogen gas. If an extra radio background is produced by galaxies, we rule out (at 95% confidence) the combination of high radio and low X-raymore »luminosities ofLr,ν/SFR > 4 × 1024W Hz−1M1yr andLX/SFR < 7.6 × 1039erg s−1M1yr. The new HERA upper limits neither support nor disfavor a cosmological interpretation of the recent Experiment to Detect the Global EOR Signature (EDGES) measurement. The framework described here provides a foundation for the interpretation of future HERA results.

    « less