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  1. Abstract

    Companions embedded in the cavities of transitional circumstellar disks have been observed to exhibit excess luminosity at Hα, an indication that they are actively accreting. We report 5 yr (2013–2018) of monitoring of the position and Hαexcess luminosity of the embedded, accreting low-mass stellar companion HD 142527 B from the MagAO/VisAO instrument. We usepyklip, a Python implementation of the Karhunen–Loeve Image Processing algorithm, to detect the companion. Usingpyklipforward modeling, we constrain the relative astrometry to 1–2 mas precision and achieve sufficient photometric precision (±0.2 mag, 3% error) to detect changes in the Hαcontrast of the companion over time. In order to accurately determine the relative astrometry of the companion, we conduct an astrometric calibration of the MagAO/VisAO camera against 20 yr of Keck/NIRC2 images of the Trapezium cluster. We demonstrate agreement of our VisAO astrometry with other published positions for HD 142527 B, and useorbitize!to generate a posterior distribution of orbits fit to the relative astrometry of HD 142527 B. Our data suggest that the companion is close to periastron passage, on an orbit significantly misaligned with respect to both the wide circumbinary disk and the recently observed inner disk encircling HD 142527 A. We translate observed Hαcontrasts formore »HD 142527 B into mass accretion rate estimates on the order of 4–9 × 10−10Myr−1. Photometric variation in the Hαexcess of the companion suggests that the accretion rate onto the companion is variable. This work represents a significant step toward observing accretion-driven variability onto protoplanets, such as PDS 70 b&c.

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  2. Abstract

    Accretion signatures from bound brown dwarf and protoplanetary companions provide evidence for ongoing planet formation, and accreting substellar objects have enabled new avenues to study the astrophysical mechanisms controlling the formation and accretion processes. Delorme 1 (AB)b, a ∼30–45 Myr circumbinary planetary-mass companion, was recently discovered to exhibit strong Hαemission. This suggests ongoing accretion from a circumplanetary disk, somewhat surprising given canonical gas disk dispersal timescales of 5–10 Myr. Here, we present the first NIR detection of accretion from the companion in Paβ, Paγ, and Brγemission lines from SOAR/TripleSpec 4.1, confirming and further informing its accreting nature. The companion shows strong line emission, withLline≈ 1–6 × 10−8Lacross lines and epochs, while the binary host system shows no NIR hydrogen line emission (Lline< 0.32–11 × 10−7L). Observed NIR hydrogen line ratios are more consistent with a planetary accretion shock than with local line excitation models commonly used to interpret stellar magnetospheric accretion. Using planetary accretion shock models, we derive mass accretion rate estimates ofṀpla3–4 × 10−8MJyr−1, somewhat higher than expected under the standard star formation paradigm. Delorme 1 (AB)b’s high accretion rate is perhaps more consistent with formation via disk fragmentation. Delorme 1 (AB)b is themore »first protoplanet candidate with clear (signal-to-noise ratio ∼5) NIR hydrogen line emission.

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  3. Abstract We present near-infrared Large Binocular Telescope LMIRCam imagery of the disk around the Herbig Ae/Be star AB Aurigae. A comparison of the surface brightness at K s (2.16 μ m), H 2 O narrowband (3.08 μ m), and L ′ (3.7 μ m) allows us to probe the presence of icy grains in this (pre)transitional disk environment. By applying reference differential imaging point-spread function subtraction, we detect the disk at high signal-to-noise ratios in all three bands. We find strong morphological differences between the bands, including asymmetries consistent with the observed spiral arms within 100 au in L ′ . An apparent deficit of scattered light at 3.08 μ m relative to the bracketing wavelengths ( K s and L ′ ) is evocative of ice absorption at the disk surface layer. However, the Δ( K s − H 2 O) color is consistent with grains with little to no ice (0%–5% by mass). The Δ ( H 2 O − L ′ ) color, conversely, suggests grains with a much higher ice mass fraction (∼0.68), and the two colors cannot be reconciled under a single grain population model. Additionally, we find that the extremely red Δ ( Kmore »s − L ′ ) disk color cannot be reproduced under conventional scattered light modeling with any combination of grain parameters or reasonable local extinction values. We hypothesize that the scattering surfaces at the three wavelengths are not colocated, and that the optical depth effects in each wavelength result from probing the grain population at different disk surface depths. The morphological similarity between K s and H 2 O suggests that their scattering surfaces are near one another, lending credence to the Δ( K s − H 2 O) disk color constraint of <5% ice mass fraction for the outermost scattering disk layer.« less