Iron oxide is commonly found in natural or industrial glass compositions and can exist as ferrous (Fe2+) or ferric (Fe3+) species, with their ratios depending on glass composition, temperature, pressure and the redox reactions during the glass forming process. The iron redox ratio plays an important role on silicate glass structures and consequently various properties. This work aims to study the effect of iron oxide, and particularly the iron redox ratio, on the structures of borosilicate and boroaluminosilicate glasses using molecular dynamics simulations with newly developed iron potential parameters that are compatible with the borosilicate potentials. The results provide detailed cation coordination states of both iron species and the effect of redox ratio on boron coordination and other structural features. Particularly, competition for charge compensating modifier cations (such as Na+) among the fourfold‐coordinated cations such as B3+, Al3+, and Fe3+is investigated by calculating the cation–cation pair distribution functions and coordination preferential ratios. The results show that the trivalent ferric ions, with a shorter Fe–O bond distance and better defined first coordiation shell with mainly four‐fold coordination, act as a glass former whereas the divalent ferrous ions mainly play the role of glass modifier. The ferrous/ferric ratio (Fe2+/Fe3+) was found to affect the glass chemistry and hence glass properties by regulating the amount of four‐coordinated boron, the fraction of non‐briding oxygen and other features. The results are compared with available experimental data to gain insights of the complex structures and charge compensation schemes of the glass system.more » « less
- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Journal of the American Ceramic Society
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- p. 7272-7290
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Iron oxides are frequently found in natural and industrial glass compositions and can affect various physical and chemical properties of the glasses and their melts. Thus, a fundamental understanding of iron-bearing silicate melts and glasses is of both scientific and technological importance. This study investigates the structures of sodium iron silicate glasses with compositions of NaFeSiO4, NaFeSi2O6, NaFeSi3O8, and Na5FeSi4O12 using molecular dynamics simulations in combination with Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) characterizations. Short and medium range structural features of these glasses support that ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) ions play the roles of network modifier and network former, respectively, with the Fe oxidation states playing an important role in the polymerization of the glass network. These simulation results agree well with newly measured room temperature EXAFS spectra. The simulated glass structures were also compared to the melts structures with the same composition but different redox ratios. The average coordination numbers of the cations were found to be affected both by the melt temperature and iron redox ratio.more » « less
The modifier field strength (FS) is believed to play an important role in determining the elastic–plastic responses of aluminoborosilicate (ABS) glasses, but its effect is not well understood. Three novel alkali and three alkaline earth (AE) ABS compositions were created for this study which is the first part of two studies that explored the elastoplastic responses of these glasses. Six compositions were designed using different network modifiers (NWMs) to cover a range of cation FS. The glasses were also designed such that the concentrations of NWM and Al2O3were similar, which maximized the three‐coordinated boron fraction in the network. It is well known that modifier FS can affect the coordination number (CN) of Al and B in an ABS glass structure, for example, a higher FS modifier can promote B3 → B4and higher [Al5,6], but the degree of this depends on network former (NWF) ratios. Previous work used solid‐state NMR spectroscopic analysis on the current glasses to find that there was variation between [B4] and [Al4] between the two glass series (alkali vs. AE) but that was attributed to synthesis factors and no trend with FS was associated with the varying NWF CN. Further,29Si ssNMR showed no evidence of NBOs which made sense based on composition. The conclusion, therefore, was that there was a far greater correlation with modifier FS for the increased mechanical and physical properties rather than the CN of Al and B. Part I of the current work focused on the elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, the indentation size effect (ISE), and the bow‐in parameter. This part laid out the foundation to investigate the intersection of these elastoplastic properties with hardness and crack resistance as a function of NWM FS. Results showed that: (i) the Young's, bulk, and shear moduli increased with modifier FS, whereas Poisson's ratio did not trend with FS; (ii) the alkali glasses had a significantly higher magnitudes of ISE compared to the AE glasses; and (iii) the bow‐in parameter was load dependent and decreased with modifier FS at the highest indentation load.
Network glass structures are commonly characterized by the network formers and their linkage but modifiers can also play an important role on various features of glass structures. In this work, we investigated the effect of cation field strength (CFS) of common modifier cations with large differences of CFS on the structures of aluminoborosilicate glasses by performing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with recently developed potentials. It was found that modifier cations with higher CFS such as Mg2+ significantly reduced the fraction of fourfold coordinated boron, suggesting that the cations with higher field strength favor nonbridging oxygen generation in the silicate network and are less effective for charge compensation. The findings from our MD simulations are compared with the results from NMR and Raman spectroscopy studies in the literature as well as those from other MD simulations. Insights of the CFS effect on glass structures and the structural role of Mg2+ ions are gained from these simulations results and related discussionsmore » « less
Super‐Earths ranging up to 10 Earth masses (ME) with Earth‐like density are common among the observed exoplanets thus far, but their measured masses and radii do not uniquely elucidate their internal structure. Exploring the phase transitions in the Mg‐silicates that define the mantle‐structure of super‐Earths is critical to characterizing their interiors, yet the relevant terapascal conditions are experimentally challenging for direct structural analysis. Here we investigated the crystal chemistry of Fe3O4as a low‐pressure analog to Mg2SiO4between 45–115 GPa and up to 3000 K using powder and single crystal X‐ray diffraction in the laser‐heated diamond anvil cell. Between 60–115 GPa and above 2000 K, Fe3O4adopts an 8‐fold coordinated Th3P4‐type structure (
I‐43d, Z= 4) with disordered Fe2+and Fe3+into one metal site. This Fe‐oxide phase is isostructural with that predicted for Mg2SiO4above 500 GPa in super‐Earth mantles and suggests that Mg2SiO4can incorporate both ferric and ferrous iron at these conditions. The pressure‐volume behavior observed in this 8‐fold coordinated Fe3O4indicates a maximum 4% density increase across the 6‐ to 8‐fold coordination transition in the analog Mg‐silicate. Reassessment of the FeO—Fe3O4fugacity buffer considering the Fe3O4phase relationships identified in this study reveals that increasing pressure and temperature to 120 GPa and 3000 K in Earth and planetary mantles drives iron toward oxidation.
Borates and borosilicates are potential candidates for the design and development of glass formulations with important industrial and technological applications. A major challenge that retards the pace of development of borate/borosilicate based glasses using predictive modeling is the lack of reliable computational models to predict the structure‐property relationships in these glasses over a wide compositional space. A major hindrance in this pursuit has been the complexity of boron‐oxygen bonding due to which it has been difficult to develop adequate B–O interatomic potentials. In this article, we have evaluated the performance of three B–O interatomic potential models recently developed by Bauchy et al [
J. Non‐Cryst. Solids, 2018, 498, 294–304], Du et al [ J. Am. Ceram. Soc. https://doi.org/10.1111/jace.16082] and Edèn et al [ Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2018, 20, 8192–8209] aiming to reproduce the short‐to‐medium range structures of sodium borosilicate glasses in the system 25 Na2O xB2O3(75 − x) SiO2( x= 0‐75 mol%). To evaluate the different force fields, we have computed at the density functional theory level the NMR parameters of11B,23Na, and29Si of the models generated with the three potentials and the simulated MAS NMR spectra compared with the experimental counterparts. It was observed that the rigid ionic models proposed by Bauchy and Du can both reliably reproduce the partitioning between BO3and BO4species of the investigated glasses, along with the local environment around sodium in the glass structure. However, they do not accurately reproduce the second coordination sphere of silicon ions and the Si–O–T (T = Si, B) and B‐O‐T distribution angles in the investigated compositional space which strongly affect the NMR parameters and final spectral shape. On the other hand, the core‐shell parameterization model proposed by Edén underestimates the fraction of BO4species of the glass with composition 25Na2O 18.4B2O356.6SiO2but can accurately reproduce the shape of the11B and29Si MAS‐NMR spectra of the glasses investigations due to the narrower B–O–T and Si‐O‐T bond angle distributions. Finally, the effect of the number of boron atoms (also distinguishing the BO3and BO4units) in the second coordination sphere of the network former cations on the NMR parameters have been evaluated.