skip to main content


Title: Multi-breather solutions to the Sasa–Satsuma equation
General breather solution to the Sasa–Satsuma equation (SSE) is systematically investigated in this paper. We firstly transform the SSE into a set of three Hirota bilinear equations under a proper plane wave boundary condition. Starting from a specially arranged tau-function of the Kadomtsev–Petviashvili hierarchy and a set of 11 bilinear equations satisfied, we implement a series steps of reduction procedure, i.e. C-type reduction, dimension reduction and complex conjugate reduction, and reduce these 11 equations to three bilinear equations for the SSE. Meanwhile, the general breather solution to the SSE is found in determinant of even order. The one- and two-breather solutions are calculated and analysed in detail.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1715991
NSF-PAR ID:
10374275
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
Volume:
478
Issue:
2258
ISSN:
1364-5021
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    In the present paper, we are concerned with the link between the Kadomtsev–Petviashvili–Toda (KP–Toda) hierarchy and the massive Thirring (MT) model. First, we bilinearize the MT model under both the vanishing and nonvanishing boundary conditions. Starting from a set of bilinear equations of two‐component KP–Toda hierarchy, we derive multibright solution to the MT model. Then, considering a set of bilinear equations of the single‐component KP–Toda hierarchy, multidark soliton and multibreather solutions to the MT model are constructed by imposing constraints on the parameters in two types of tau function, respectively. The dynamics and properties of one‐ and two‐soliton for bright, dark soliton and breather solutions are analyzed in details.

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    In the present paper, we are with integrable discretization of a modified Camassa–Holm (mCH) equation with linear dispersion term. The key of the construction is the semidiscrete analog for a set of bilinear equations of the mCH equation. First, we show that these bilinear equations and their determinant solutions either in Gram‐type or Casorati‐type can be reduced from the discrete Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) equation through Miwa transformation. Then, by scrutinizing the reduction process, we obtain a set of semidiscrete bilinear equations and their general soliton solution in Gram‐type or Casorati‐type determinant form. Finally, by defining dependent variables and discrete hodograph transformations, we are able to derive an integrable semidiscrete analog of the mCH equation. It is also shown that the semidiscrete mCH equation converges to the continuous one in the continuum limit.

     
    more » « less
  3. null (Ed.)
    Abstract General rogue waves in (1+1)-dimensional three-wave resonant interaction systems are derived by the bilinear method. These solutions are divided into three families, which correspond to a simple root, two simple roots and a double root of a certain quartic equation arising from the dimension reduction, respectively. It is shown that while the first family of solutions associated with a simple root exists for all signs of the nonlinear coefficients in the three-wave interaction equations, the other two families of solutions associated with two simple roots and a double root can only exist in the so-called soliton-exchange case, where the nonlinear coefficients have certain signs. Many of these rogue wave solutions, such as those associated with two simple roots, the ones generated by a $2\times 2$ block determinant in the double-root case, and higher-order solutions associated with a simple root, are new solutions which have not been reported before. Technically, our bilinear derivation of rogue waves for the double-root case is achieved by a generalization to the previous dimension reduction procedure in the bilinear method, and this generalized procedure allows us to treat roots of arbitrary multiplicities. Dynamics of the derived rogue waves is also examined, and new rogue wave patterns are presented. Connection between these bilinear rogue waves and those derived earlier by Darboux transformation is also explained. 
    more » « less
  4. A Reduction – an accumulation over a set of values, using an associative and commutative operator – is a common computation in many numerical computations, including scientific computations, machine learning, computer vision, and financial analytics. Contemporary polyhedral-based compilation techniques make it possible to optimize reductions, such as prefix sums, in which each component of the reduction’s output potentially shares computation with another component in the reduction. Therefore an optimizing compiler can identify the computation shared between multiple components and generate code that computes the shared computation only once. These techniques, however, do not support reductions that – when phrased in the language of the polyhedral model – span multiple dependent statements. In such cases, existing approaches can generate incorrect code that violates the data dependences of the original, unoptimized program. In this work, we identify and formalize the optimization of dependent reductions as an integer bilinear program. We present a heuristic optimization algorithm that uses an affine sequential schedule of the program to determine how to simplfy reductions yet still preserve the program’s dependences. We demonstrate that the algorithm provides optimal complexity for a set of benchmark programs from the literature on probabilistic inference algorithms, whose performance critically relies on simplifying these reductions. The complexities for 10 of the 11 programs improve siginifcantly by factors at least of the sizes of the input data, which are in the range of 10 4 to 10 6 for typical real application inputs. We also confirm the significance of the improvement by showing speedups in wall-clock time that range from 1.1x to over 10 6 x. 
    more » « less
  5. Purpose The purpose of this paper is as follows: to significantly reduce the computation time (by a factor of 1,000 and more) compared to known numerical techniques for real-world problems with complex interfaces; and to simplify the solution by using trivial unfitted Cartesian meshes (no need in complicated mesh generators for complex geometry). Design/methodology/approach This study extends the recently developed optimal local truncation error method (OLTEM) for the Poisson equation with constant coefficients to a much more general case of discontinuous coefficients that can be applied to domains with different material properties (e.g. different inclusions, multi-material structural components, etc.). This study develops OLTEM using compact 9-point and 25-point stencils that are similar to those for linear and quadratic finite elements. In contrast to finite elements and other known numerical techniques for interface problems with conformed and unfitted meshes, OLTEM with 9-point and 25-point stencils and unfitted Cartesian meshes provides the 3-rd and 11-th order of accuracy for irregular interfaces, respectively; i.e. a huge increase in accuracy by eight orders for the new 'quadratic' elements compared to known techniques at similar computational costs. There are no unknowns on interfaces between different materials; the structure of the global discrete system is the same for homogeneous and heterogeneous materials (the difference in the values of the stencil coefficients). The calculation of the unknown stencil coefficients is based on the minimization of the local truncation error of the stencil equations and yields the optimal order of accuracy of OLTEM at a given stencil width. The numerical results with irregular interfaces show that at the same number of degrees of freedom, OLTEM with the 9-points stencils is even more accurate than the 4-th order finite elements; OLTEM with the 25-points stencils is much more accurate than the 7-th order finite elements with much wider stencils and conformed meshes. Findings The significant increase in accuracy for OLTEM by one order for 'linear' elements and by 8 orders for 'quadratic' elements compared to that for known techniques. This will lead to a huge reduction in the computation time for the problems with complex irregular interfaces. The use of trivial unfitted Cartesian meshes significantly simplifies the solution and reduces the time for the data preparation (no need in complicated mesh generators for complex geometry). Originality/value It has been never seen in the literature such a huge increase in accuracy for the proposed technique compared to existing methods. Due to a high accuracy, the proposed technique will allow the direct solution of multiscale problems without the scale separation. 
    more » « less