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Title: Measurements of one-point statistics in 21-cm intensity maps via foreground avoidance strategy
ABSTRACT

Measurements of the one-point probability distribution function and higher-order moments (variance, skewness, and kurtosis) of the high-redshift 21-cm fluctuations are among the most direct statistical probes of the non-Gaussian nature of structure formation and evolution during re-ionization. However, contamination from astrophysical foregrounds and instrument systematics pose significant challenges in measuring these statistics in real observations. In this work, we use forward modelling to investigate the feasibility of measuring 21-cm one-point statistics through a foreground avoidance strategy. Leveraging the characteristic wedge-shape of the foregrounds in k-space, we apply a wedge-cut filtre that removes the foreground contaminated modes from a mock data set based on the Hydrogen Epoch of Re-ionization Array (HERA) instrument, and measure the one-point statistics from the image-space representation of the remaining non-contaminated modes. We experiment with varying degrees of wedge-cutting over different frequency bandwidths and find that the centre of the band is the least susceptible to bias from wedge-cutting. Based on this finding, we introduce a rolling filtre method that allows reconstruction of an optimal wedge-cut 21-cm intensity map over the full bandwidth using outputs from wedge-cutting over multiple sub-bands. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to show that HERA should be able to measure the rise more » in skewness and kurtosis near the end of re-ionization with the rolling wedge-cut method if foreground leakage from the Fourier transform window function can be controlled.

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Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10375916
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume:
517
Issue:
2
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
p. 2138-2150
ISSN:
0035-8711
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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