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Title: Near Neutral pH Redox Flow Battery with Low Permeability and Long‐Lifetime Phosphonated Viologen Active Species
Abstract

A highly stable phosphonate‐functionalized viologen is introduced as the redox‐active material in a negative potential electrolyte for aqueous redox flow batteries (ARFBs) operating at nearly neutral pH. The solubility is 1.23mand the reduction potential is the lowest of any substituted viologen utilized in a flow battery, reaching −0.462 V versus SHE at pH = 9. The negative charges in both the oxidized and the reduced states of 1,1′‐bis(3‐phosphonopropyl)‐[4,4′‐bipyridine]‐1,1′‐diium dibromide (BPP−Vi) effect low permeability in cation exchange membranes and suppress a bimolecular mechanism of viologen decomposition. A flow battery pairing BPP−Vi with a ferrocyanide‐based positive potential electrolyte across an inexpensive, non‐fluorinated cation exchange membrane at pH = 9 exhibits an open‐circuit voltage of 0.9 V and a capacity fade rate of 0.016% per day or 0.00069% per cycle. Overcharging leads to viologen decomposition, causing irreversible capacity fade. This work introduces extremely stable, extremely low‐permeating and low reduction potential redox active materials into near neutral ARFBs.

 
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Award ID(s):
1914543
NSF-PAR ID:
10376283
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Advanced Energy Materials
Volume:
10
Issue:
20
ISSN:
1614-6832
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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