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Title: Deep reinforcement learning achieves multifunctional morphing airfoil control

Smooth camber morphing aircraft offer increased control authority and improved aerodynamic efficiency. Smart material actuators have become a popular driving force for shape changes, capable of adhering to weight and size constraints and allowing for simplicity in mechanical design. As a step towards creating uncrewed aerial vehicles (UAVs) capable of autonomously responding to flow conditions, this work examines a multifunctional morphing airfoil’s ability to follow commands in various flows. We integrated an airfoil with a morphing trailing edge consisting of an antagonistic pair of macro fiber composites (MFCs), serving as both skin and actuator, and internal piezoelectric flex sensors to form a closed loop composite system. Closed loop feedback control is necessary to accurately follow deflection commands due to the hysteretic behavior of MFCs. Here we used a deep reinforcement learning algorithm, Proximal Policy Optimization, to control the morphing airfoil. Two neural controllers were trained in a simulation developed through time series modeling on long short-term memory recurrent neural networks. The learned controllers were then tested on the composite wing using two state inference methods in still air and in a wind tunnel at various flow speeds. We compared the performance of our neural controllers to one using traditional position-derivative feedback control methods. Our experimental results validate that the autonomous neural controllers were faster and more accurate than traditional methods. This research shows that deep learning methods can overcome common obstacles for achieving sufficient modeling and control when implementing smart composite actuators in an autonomous aerospace environment.

 
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Award ID(s):
1935216
NSF-PAR ID:
10378422
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
SAGE Publications
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Composite Materials
Volume:
57
Issue:
4
ISSN:
0021-9983
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 721-736
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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