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- Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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- National Science Foundation
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Comparative Approaches in Vertebrate Cartilage Histogenesis and Regulation: Insights from Lampreys and HagfishesJawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) have been the dominant lineage of deuterostomes for nearly three hundred fifty million years. Only a few lineages of jawless vertebrates remain in comparison. Composed of lampreys and hagfishes (cyclostomes), these jawless survivors are important systems for understanding the evolution of vertebrates. One focus of cyclostome research has been head skeleton development, as its evolution has been a driver of vertebrate morphological diversification. Recent work has identified hyaline-like cartilage in the oral cirri of the invertebrate chordate amphioxus, making cyclostomes critical for understanding the stepwise acquisition of vertebrate chondroid tissues. Our knowledge of cyclostome skeletogenesis, however, has lagged behind gnathostomes due to the difficulty of manipulating lamprey and hagfish embryos. In this review, we discuss and compare the regulation and histogenesis of cyclostome and gnathostome skeletal tissues. We also survey differences in skeletal morphology that we see amongst cyclostomes, as few elements can be confidently homologized between them. A recurring theme is the heterogeneity of skeletal morphology amongst living vertebrates, despite conserved genetic regulation. Based on these comparisons, we suggest a model through which these mesenchymal connective tissues acquired distinct histologies and that histological flexibility in cartilage existed in the last common ancestor of modern vertebrates.
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Divergent genes encoding the putative receptors for growth hormone and prolactin in sea lamprey display distinct patterns of expression
Growth hormone receptor (GHR) and prolactin receptor (PRLR) in jawed vertebrates were thought to arise after the divergence of gnathostomes from a basal vertebrate. In this study we have identified two genes encoding putative GHR and PRLR in sea lamprey (
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Goldman, Gustavo H. (Ed.)ABSTRACT Gene expression divergence through evolutionary processes is thought to be important for achieving programmed development in multicellular organisms. To test this premise in filamentous fungi, we investigated transcriptional profiles of 3,942 single-copy orthologous genes (SCOGs) in five related sordariomycete species that have morphologically diverged in the formation of their flask-shaped perithecia. We compared expression of the SCOGs to inferred gene expression levels of the most recent common ancestor of the five species, ranking genes from their largest increases to smallest increases in expression during perithecial development in each of the five species. We found that a large proportion of the genes that exhibited evolved increases in gene expression were important for normal perithecial development in Fusarium graminearum . Many of these genes were previously uncharacterized, encoding hypothetical proteins without any known functional protein domains. Interestingly, the developmental stages during which aberrant knockout phenotypes appeared largely coincided with the elevated expression of the deleted genes. In addition, we identified novel genes that affected normal perithecial development in Magnaporthe oryzae and Neurospora crassa , which were functionally and transcriptionally diverged from the orthologous counterparts in F. graminearum . Furthermore, comparative analysis of developmental transcriptomes and phylostratigraphic analysis suggested that genes encodingmore »