This content will become publicly available on December 1, 2023
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- Nature Communications
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- National Science Foundation
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We used a combination of polarized Raman spectroscopy experiment and model magnetism–phonon coupling calculations to study the rich magneto-Raman effect in the two-dimensional (2D) magnet CrI 3 . We reveal a layered-magnetism–assisted phonon scattering mechanism below the magnetic onset temperature, whose Raman excitation breaks time-reversal symmetry, has an antisymmetric Raman tensor, and follows the magnetic phase transitions across critical magnetic fields, on top of the presence of the conventional phonon scattering with symmetric Raman tensors in N -layer CrI 3 . We resolve in data and by calculations that the first-order A g phonon of the monolayer splits into an N -fold multiplet in N -layer CrI 3 due to the interlayer coupling ( N ≥ 2 ) and that the phonons within the multiplet show distinct magnetic field dependence because of their different layered-magnetism–phonon coupling. We further find that such a layered-magnetism–phonon coupled Raman scattering mechanism extends beyond first-order to higher-order multiphonon scattering processes. Our results on the magneto-Raman effect of the first-order phonons in the multiplet and the higher-order multiphonons in N -layer CrI 3 demonstrate the rich and strong behavior of emergent magneto-optical effects in 2D magnets and underline the unique opportunities of spin–phonon physics in vanmore »
Coherent helicity-dependent spin-phonon oscillations in the ferromagnetic van der Waals crystal CrI3
The discovery of two-dimensional systems hosting intrinsic magnetic order represents a seminal addition to the rich landscape of van der Waals materials. CrI3is an archetypal example, where the interdependence of structure and magnetism, along with strong light-matter interactions, provides a new platform to explore the optical control of magnetic and vibrational degrees of freedom at the nanoscale. However, the nature of magneto-structural coupling on its intrinsic ultrafast timescale remains a crucial open question. Here, we probe magnetic and vibrational dynamics in bulk CrI3using ultrafast optical spectroscopy, revealing spin-flip scattering-driven demagnetization and strong transient exchange-mediated interactions between lattice vibrations and spin oscillations. The latter yields a coherent spin-coupled phonon mode that is highly sensitive to the driving pulse’s helicity in the magnetically ordered phase. Our results elucidate the nature of ultrafast spin-lattice coupling in CrI3and highlight its potential for applications requiring high-speed control of magnetism at the nanoscale.
Van der Waals (VdW) materials have opened new directions in the study of low dimensional magnetism. A largely unexplored arena is the intrinsic tuning of VdW magnets toward new ground states. Chromium trihalides provided the first such example with a change of interlayer magnetic coupling emerging upon exfoliation. Here, we take a different approach to engineer previously unknown ground states, not by exfoliation, but by tuning the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of the nonmagnetic ligand atoms (Cl, Br, I). We synthesize a three-halide series, CrCl 3 − x − y Br x I y , and map their magnetic properties as a function of Cl, Br, and I content. The resulting triangular phase diagrams unveil a frustrated regime near CrCl 3 . First-principles calculations confirm that the frustration is driven by a competition between the chromium and halide SOCs. Furthermore, we reveal a field-induced change of interlayer coupling in the bulk of CrCl 3 − x − y Br x I y crystals at the same field as in the exfoliation experiments.
Antiferromagnetic proximity coupling between semiconductor quantum emitters in WSe 2 and van der Waals ferromagnetsvan der Waals ferromagnets have gained significant interest due to their unique ability to provide magnetic response even at the level of a few monolayers. Particularly in combination with 2D semiconductors, such as the transition metal dichalcogenide WSe 2 , one can create heterostructures that feature unique magneto-optical response in the exciton emission through the magnetic proximity effect. Here we use 0D quantum emitters in WSe 2 to probe for the ferromagnetic response in heterostructures with Fe 3 GT and Fe 5 GT ferromagnets through an all-optical read-out technique that does not require electrodes. The spectrally narrow spin-doublet of the WSe 2 quantum emitters allowed to fully resolve the hysteretic magneto-response in the exciton emission, revealing the characteristic signature of both ferro- and antiferromagnetic proximity coupling that originates from the interplay among Fe 3 GT or Fe 5 GT, a thin surface oxide, and the spin doublets of the quantum emitters. Our work highlights the utility of 0D quantum emitters for probing interface magnetic dipoles in vdW heterostructures with high precision. The observed hysteretic magneto response in the exciton emission of quantum emitters adds further new degrees of freedom for spin and g -factor manipulation of quantum states.
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