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Title: The millimeter-wave spectrum of the SiP radical (X 2 Π i ): Rotational perturbations and hyperfine structure
The millimeter/submillimeter-wave spectrum of the SiP radical (X 2 Π i ) has been recorded using direct absorption spectroscopy in the frequency range of 151–532 GHz. SiP was synthesized in an AC discharge from the reaction of SiH 4 and gas-phase phosphorus, in argon carrier gas. Both spin–orbit ladders were observed. Fifteen rotational transitions were measured originating in the Ω = 3/2 ladder, and twelve in the Ω = 1/2 substate, each exhibiting lambda doubling and, at lower frequencies, hyperfine interactions from the phosphorus nuclear spin of I = 1/2. The lambda-doublets in the Ω = 1/2 levels appeared to be perturbed at higher J, with the f component deviating from the predicted pattern, likely due to interactions with the nearby excited A 2 Σ + electronic state, where ΔE Π-Σ ∼ 430 cm −1 . The data were analyzed using a Hund’s case a β Hamiltonian and rotational, spin–orbit, lambda-doubling, and hyperfine parameters were determined. A 2 Π/ 2 Σ deperturbation analysis was also performed, considering spin–orbit, spin-electronic, and L-uncoupling interactions. Although SiP is clearly not a hydride, the deperturbed parameters derived suggest that the pure precession hypothesis may be useful in assessing the 2 Π/ 2 Σ interaction. Interpretation of more » the Fermi contact term, b F , the spin-dipolar constant, c, and the nuclear spin-orbital parameter, a, indicates that the orbital of the unpaired electron is chiefly p π in character. The bond length in the v = 0 level was found to be r 0 = 2.076 Å, suggestive of a double bond between the silicon and phosphorus atoms. « less
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The Journal of Chemical Physics
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National Science Foundation
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  1. Abstract

    The millimeter-wave spectrum of the SiP radical (X2Πi) has been measured in the laboratory for the first time using direct-absorption methods. SiP was created by the reaction of phosphorus vapor and SiH4in argon in an AC discharge. Fifteen rotational transitions (J+ 1 ←J) were measured for SiP in the Ω = 3/2 ladder in the frequency range 151–533 GHz, and rotational, lambda doubling, and phosphorus hyperfine constants determined. Based on the laboratory measurements, SiP was detected in the circumstellar shell of IRC+10216, using the Submillimeter Telescope and the 12 m antenna of the Arizona Radio Observatory at 1 mm and 2 mm, respectively. Eight transitions of SiP were searched: four were completely obscured by stronger features, two were uncontaminated (J= 13.5 → 12.5 and 16.5 → 15.5), and two were partially blended with other lines (J= 8.5 → 7.5 and 17.5 → 16.5). The SiP line profiles were broader than expected for IRC+10216, consistent with the hyperfine splitting. From non-LTE radiative transfer modeling, SiP was found to have a shell distribution with a radius ∼300R*, and an abundance, relative to H2, off∼ 2 × 10−9. From additional modeling, abundances of 7 × 10−9and 9 × 10−10were determined for CPmore »and PN, respectively, both located in shells at 550–650R*. SiP may be formed from grain destruction, which liberates both phosphorus and silicon into the gas phase, and then is channeled into other P-bearing molecules such as PN and CP.

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  2. By coupling a newly developed quantum-electronic-state-selected supersonically cooled vanadium cation (V + ) beam source with a double quadrupole-double octopole (DQDO) ion–molecule reaction apparatus, we have investigated detailed absolute integral cross sections ( σ 's) for the reactions, V + [a 5 D J ( J = 0, 2), a 5 F J ( J = 1, 2), and a 3 F J ( J = 2, 3)] + CH 4 , covering the center-of-mass collision energy range of E cm = 0.1–10.0 eV. Three product channels, VH + + CH 3 , VCH 2 + + H 2 , and VCH 3 + + H, are unambiguously identified based on E cm -threshold measurements. No J -dependences for the σ curves ( σ versus E cm plots) of individual electronic states are discernible, which may indicate that the spin–orbit coupling is weak and has little effect on chemical reactivity. For all three product channels, the maximum σ values for the triplet a 3 F J state [ σ (a 3 F J )] are found to be more than ten times larger than those for the quintet σ (a 5 D J ) and σ (a 5 F Jmore ») states, showing that a reaction mechanism favoring the conservation of total electron spin. Without performing a detailed theoretical study, we have tentatively interpreted that a weak quintet-to-triplet spin crossing is operative for the activation reaction. The σ (a 5 D 0 , a 5 F 1 , and a 3 F 2) measurements for the VH + , VCH 2 + , and VCH 3 + product ion channels along with accounting of the kinetic energy distribution due to the thermal broadening effect for CH 4 have allowed the determination of the 0 K bond dissociation energies: D 0 (V + –H) = 2.02 (0.05) eV, D 0 (V + –CH 2 ) = 3.40 (0.07) eV, and D 0 (V + –CH 3 ) = 2.07 (0.09) eV. Detailed branching ratios of product ion channels for the titled reaction have also been reported. Excellent simulations of the σ curves obtained previously for V + generated by surface ionization at 1800–2200 K can be achieved by the linear combination of the σ (a 5 D J , a 5 F J , and a 3 F J ) curves weighted by the corresponding Boltzmann populations of the electronic states. In addition to serving as a strong validation of the thermal equilibrium assumption for the populations of the V + electronic states in the hot filament ionization source, the agreement between these results also confirmed that the V + (a 5 D J , a 5 F J , and a 3 F J ) states prepared in this experiment are in single spin–orbit states with 100% purity.« less
  3. The fine and hyperfine interactions in PbF have been studied using the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy method. Cold PbF molecular beam was produced by laser-ablating a Pb rod under jet-cooled conditions, followed by the reaction with SF6. The LIF excitation spectrum of the (0, 0) band in the B2Σ+–X2Π1/2 system of the 208PbF, 207PbF, and 206PbF isotopologues has been recorded with rotational, fine structure, and hyperfine-structure resolution. Transitions in the LIF spectrum were assigned and combined with the previous X2Π3/2–X2Π1/2 emission spectrum in the near-infrared region [Ziebarth et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc. 191, 108–116 (1998)] and the X2Π1/2 state pure rotational spectrum of PbF [Mawhorter et al., Phys. Rev. A 84, 022508 (2011)] in a global fit to derive the rotational, spin–orbit, spin–rotation, and hyperfine interaction parameters of the ground (X2Π1/2) and the excited (B2Σ+) electronic states. Molecular constants determined in the present work are compared with previously reported values. Particularly, the significance of the hyperfine parameters, A⊥ and A‖, of 207Pb is discussed.
  4. The kinetic energy dependent reactions of Re + with SO 2 were studied with guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry. ReO + , ReO 2 + , and OReS + species were observed as products, all in endothermic reactions. Modeling of the kinetic energy dependent cross sections yields 0 K bond dissociation energies (BDEs, in eV) of 4.78 ± 0.06 (Re + –O), 5.75 ± 0.02 (Re + –O 2 ), and 4.35 ± 0.14 (Re + –SO). The latter two values can be combined with other information to derive the additional values 6.05 ± 0.05 (ORe + –O) and 4.89 ± 0.19 (ORe + –S). BDEs of ReO + and ReO 2 + agree with literature values whereas the values for OReS + are the first measurements. The former result is obtained even though formation of ground state ReO + is spin-forbidden. Quantum mechanical calculations at the B3LYP level of theory with a def2-TZVPPD basis set yield results that agree reasonably well with experimental values. Additional calculations at the BP86 and CCSD(T) levels of theory using def2-QZVPPD and aug-cc-pVxZ (x = T, Q, and 5) basis sets were performed to compare thermochemistry with experiment to determine that ReO 2more »+ rather than the isobaric ReS + is formed. Product ground states are 3 Δ 3 (ReO + ), 3 B 1 (OReO + ), 5 Π −1 (ReS + ), and 3 A′′(OReS + ) after including empirical spin–orbit corrections, which means that formation of ground state products is spin-forbidden for all three product channels. The potential energy surfaces for the ReSO 2 + system were also explored at the B3LYP/def2-TZVPPD level and exhibited no barriers in excess of the endothermicities for all products. BDEs for rhenium oxide and sulfide diatomics and triatomics are compared and discussed. The present result for formation of ReO + is compared to that for formation of ReO + in the reactions of Re + + O 2 and CO, where the former system exhibited interesting dual cross section features. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that the distinction of in-plane and out-of-plane C S symmetry in the triatomic systems might be the explanation for the two endothermic features observed in the Re + + O 2 reaction.« less
  5. The kinetic energy dependences of the reactions of Pt + ( 2 D 5/2 ) with SO 2 were studied using a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer and theory. The observed cationic products are PtO + and PtSO + , with small amounts of PtS + , all formed in endothermic reactions. Modeling the kinetic energy dependent product cross sections allows determination of the product bond dissociation energies (BDEs): D 0 (Pt + –O) = 3.14 ± 0.11 eV, D 0 (Pt + –S) = 3.68 ± 0.31 eV, and D 0 (Pt + –SO) = 3.03 ± 0.12 eV. The oxide BDE agrees well with more precise literature values, whereas the latter two results are the first such measurements. Quantum mechanical calculations were performed for PtO + , PtS + , PtO 2 + , and PtSO + at the B3LYP and coupled-cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple [CCSD(T)] levels of theory using the def2-XZVPPD (X = T, Q) and aug-cc-pVXZ (X = T, Q, 5) basis sets and complete basis set extrapolations. These theoretical BDEs agree well with the experimental values. After including empirical spin–orbit corrections, the product ground states are determined as PtO + ( 4 Σ 3/2more »), PtS + ( 4 Σ 3/2 ), PtO 2 + ( 2 Σ g + ), and PtSO + ( 2 A′). Potential energy profiles including intermediates and transition states for each reaction were also calculated at the B3LYP/def2-TZVPPD level. Periodic trends in the thermochemistry of the group 9 metal chalcogenide cations are compared, and the formation of PtO + from the Pt + + SO 2 reaction is compared with those from the Pt + + O 2 , CO 2 , CO, and NO reactions.« less